|3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]
The following table summarizes the Company’s income tax expense and effective tax rates for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022:
The Company has computed its provision for income taxes based on the actual effective rate for the quarter as the Company believes this is the best estimate for the annual effective tax rate. Therefore, the Company’s effective income tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 are not indicative of the effective income tax rate for each respective fiscal year of 2023 and 2022. The Company’s effective income tax rate is significantly higher than the statutory income tax rates due in part to (i) disallowed expenses under U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“IRC”), Section 280E, (ii) change in uncertain tax positions, (iii) fair value change of derivatives, (iv) interest and penalties accrual for tax liabilities, and (v) state income taxes.
Due to its cannabis operations, the Company is subject to the limitation of IRC Section 280E under which the Company is only allowed to deduct "costs of goods sold". This results in permanent differences between ordinary and necessary business expenses deemed non-allowable under IRC Section 280E. Therefore, the effective tax rate can be highly variable and may not necessarily correlate with pre-tax income which provides for effective tax rates that are well in excess of statutory tax rates.The Company’s tax returns benefited from not applying IRC Section 280E to certain entities of the consolidated group either due to the entity not yet starting operations or because the entity had a separate trade or business that was not medical or recreational cannabis operations. The Company determined that it is not more likely than not these tax positions would be sustained under examination. As a result, the Company has an uncertain tax liability of $59,096 and $57,200 as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, inclusive of interest and penalties, which is included in income tax liabilities - non-current in the consolidated balance sheets.The amount of interest and penalties related to outstanding income tax liabilities recorded by the Company during the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $889. The amount of interest and penalties related to outstanding income tax liabilities recorded by the Company during the three months ended March 31, 2022 was not material. Additionally, the Company’s income tax payable of $29,409 and $19,921 as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, included deferral of certain 2023 and 2022 estimated income tax payments.