Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
File No. 333-266287
48,260,954 Subordinate Voting Shares
This prospectus relates to the sale or other disposition from time to time of up to 48,260,954 subordinate voting shares, no par value (Subordinate Voting Shares), consisting of: (i) 7,491,952 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding options issued under the Company's equity plan, (ii) 661,607 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon the exercise of options issued under the Company’s equity plan, (iii) 1,538,326 Subordinate Voting Shares issued as restricted stock awards under the Company's equity plan, (iv) 715,846 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon exercise of warrants issued in connection with services rendered to the Company; (v) 1,535,000 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants issued in connection with services provided to the Company; (vi) 6,900,000 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants issued in connection with the Company's 10% Senior Secured Notes; (vii) 1,311,555 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon exercise of warrants issued in connection with the Company's 10% Senior Secured Notes; (viii) 11,575,000 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants issued in private placement transactions; (ix) 198,468 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon the exercise of warrants issued in private placement transactions; and (x) 16,333,200 Subordinate Voting Shares issued in private placement and acquisition transactions held by the selling shareholders named in this prospectus. We are not selling any Subordinate Voting Shares under this prospectus and will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of Subordinate Voting Shares by the selling shareholders. This is the first public offering of our securities in the United States.
We have four classes of authorized shares: Subordinate Voting Shares, Multiple Voting Shares, Super Voting Shares and Preferred Shares. The terms and conditions of the Subordinate Voting Shares, Multiple Voting Shares and Super Voting Shares are identical except with respect to voting and conversion rights. The terms and conditions of the Preferred Shares will be determined by our board of directors, if, as and when such Preferred Shares are issued. Currently only Subordinate Voting Shares are issued and outstanding. See “Description of Capital Stock.”
The selling shareholders may sell or otherwise dispose of the Subordinate Voting Shares covered by this prospectus in a number of different ways and at varying prices. The prices at which the selling shareholders may sell the Subordinate Voting Shares will be determined by the prevailing market price for the Subordinate Voting Shares or in negotiated transactions. We provide more information about the selling shareholders and how they may sell or otherwise dispose of their Subordinate Voting Shares in the sections entitled “Selling Shareholders” and “Plan of Distribution” on pages 29 and 113, respectively, of this prospectus. The selling shareholders will pay all brokerage fees and commissions and similar expenses. We will pay all expenses (except brokerage fees and commissions and similar expenses) relating to the registration of the Subordinate Voting Shares with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Our Subordinate Voting Shares are listed on the Canadian Securities Exchange (the CSE) under the symbol “JUSH” and quoted on the OTCQX Best Market under the symbol “JUSHF.” The last reported sale price of our Subordinate Voting Shares on the CSE on August 12, 2022 was C$2.43 per share and on the OTCQX Best Market on August 12, 2022 was $1.89 per share.
Investing in our Subordinate Voting Shares involves risks that are described in the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 9 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is August 12, 2022.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS||25|
|USE OF PROCEEDS||25|
|MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS||31|
|QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK||46|
|MARKET PRICE AND DIVIDENDS ON COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS||78|
|CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED-PERSON TRANSACTIONS||94|
|DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK||98|
|CERTAIN CANADIAN FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNITED STATES RESIDENTS||106|
|CERTAIN MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS||109|
|PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION||113|
|WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION||115|
|INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS||F-1|
Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Jushi,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” in this prospectus refer to Jushi Holdings Inc. and its subsidiaries, and “this offering” refers to the offering contemplated by this prospectus.
Neither we nor the selling shareholders authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, but only under the circumstances and in the jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable free writing prospectus is current only as of the date of such prospectus, regardless of its time of delivery or any sale of Subordinate Voting Shares. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date. We are not, and the selling shareholders are not, making an offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer is not permitted.
We have not done anything that would permit a public offering of the Subordinate Voting Shares or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of Subordinate Voting Shares and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.
Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on information from our own management estimates and research, as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information, our knowledge of our industry and assumptions based on such information and knowledge, which we believe to be reasonable. Our management estimates have not been verified by any independent source, and we have not independently verified any third-party information. In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industry’s future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates. See “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
It is important for you to read and consider all of the information contained in this prospectus in making your investment decision. To understand the offering fully and for a more complete description of the offering, you should read this entire document carefully.
Investing in our Subordinate Voting Shares involves a high degree of risk. Before you decide to invest in our Subordinate Voting Shares, you should consider carefully the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus. We believe the risks described below are the risks that are material to us as of the date of this prospectus. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, results of operations and financial condition would likely be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our Subordinate Voting Shares could decline, and you may lose part or all of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The cannabis industry is relatively new.
We are operating in a relatively new industry and market. In addition to being subject to general business risks, we must continue to build brand awareness in this industry and market share through significant investments in our strategy, production capacity, quality assurance and compliance with regulations. Research in Canada, the U.S. and internationally regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy and dosing of cannabis or isolated cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) remains in relatively early stages. Few clinical trials on the benefits of cannabis or isolated cannabinoids have been conducted. Future research and clinical trials may draw opposing conclusions to statements contained in the articles, reports and studies currently favored, or could reach different or negative conclusions regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing or other facts and perceptions related to medical cannabis, which could adversely affect social acceptance of cannabis and the demand for our products and dispensary services.
Accordingly, there is no assurance that the cannabis industry and the market for medicinal and/or adult-use cannabis will continue to exist and grow as currently anticipated or function and evolve in a manner consistent with management’s expectations and assumptions. Any event or circumstance that adversely affects the cannabis industry, such as the imposition of further restrictions on sales and marketing or further restrictions on sales in certain areas and markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to grow our medical and adult-use cannabis product offerings and dispensary services may be limited.
As we introduce or expand our medical and adult-use cannabis product offerings and dispensary services, we may incur losses or otherwise fail to enter certain markets successfully. Our expansion into new markets may place us in competitive and regulatory environments with which we are unfamiliar and involve various risks, including the need to invest significant resources and the possibility that returns on those investments will not be achieved for several years, if at all. In attempting to establish new product offerings or dispensary services, we may incur significant expenses and face various other challenges, such as expanding our work force and management personnel to cover these markets and complying with complicated cannabis regulations that apply to these markets. In addition, we may not successfully demonstrate the value of these product offerings and dispensary services to consumers, and failure to do so would compromise our ability to successfully expand these additional revenue streams.
We may acquire other companies or technologies.
Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to grow our business in response to the demands of consumers and other constituents within the cannabis industry as well as competitive pressures. In some circumstances, we may determine to do so through the acquisition of complementary businesses rather than through internal development. The identification of suitable acquisition candidates can be difficult, time-consuming, and costly, and we may not be able to successfully complete identified acquisitions. In addition, we may not realize the expected benefits from completed acquisitions. The risks we face in connection with acquisition include:
|•||diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to addressing acquisition integration challenges;|
|•||coordination of research and development and sales and marketing functions;|
|•||retention of employees from the acquired company;|
|•||cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired company into our organization;|
|•||integration of the acquired company’s accounting, management information, human resources, and other administrative systems;|
|•||the need to implement or improve controls, procedures, and policies at a business that prior to the acquisition may have lacked effective controls, procedures and policies;|
|•||potential write-offs of intangible assets or other assets acquired in transactions that may have an adverse effect on our operating results in a given period;|
|•||liability for activities of the acquired company before the acquisition, including patent and trademark infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities, and other known and unknown liabilities; and|
|•||litigation or other claims in connection with the acquired company, including claims from terminated employees, consumers, former shareholders, or other third parties.|
Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with any future acquisitions or investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments, cause us to incur unanticipated liabilities, and harm our business generally. Future acquisitions could also result in the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses, or the impairment of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition.
We may issue additional Subordinate Voting Shares in connection with such transactions, which would dilute our other shareholders’ interests in us. The presence of one or more material liabilities of an acquired company that are unknown to us at the time of acquisition could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. A strategic transaction may result in a significant change in the nature of our business, operations and strategy. In addition, we may encounter unforeseen obstacles or costs in implementing a strategic transaction or integrating any acquired business into our operations.
If we cannot manage our growth, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to growth-related risks, including capacity constraints and pressure on our internal systems and controls. Our ability to manage growth effectively will require us to continue to implement and improve our operational and financial systems and to expand, train and manage our employee base. Our inability to successfully manage our growth may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
We have a history of sustained losses and negative cash flow from operations, and we expect to incur significant ongoing costs and obligations related to our investment in infrastructure, growth, regulatory compliance and operations and may not be able to achieve profitability.
We have sustained net losses from operations and negative cash flow from operating activities in the past and may incur such losses and negative operating cash flow in the future. We expect to incur significant ongoing costs and obligations related to our investment in infrastructure and growth and for regulatory compliance, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, future changes in regulations, more vigorous enforcement thereof or other unanticipated events could require extensive changes to our operations, increase our compliance costs or give rise to material liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our efforts to grow our business may be more costly than expected, and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset these higher operating expenses. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and other unknown events. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market price of our securities may significantly decrease.
We expect to incur significant ongoing costs and obligations related to our investment in infrastructure, growth, regulatory compliance and operations.
We expect to incur significant ongoing costs and obligations related to our investment in infrastructure and growth and for regulatory compliance, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, future changes in regulations, more vigorous enforcement thereof or other unanticipated events could require extensive changes to our operations, increase our compliance costs or give rise to material liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our efforts to grow our business may be more costly than expected, and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset these higher operating expenses. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and other unknown events. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market price of our securities may significantly decrease.
The market for the Subordinate Voting Shares may be limited for holders of our securities who live in the U.S.
Given the heightened risk profile associated with cannabis in the U.S., capital markets participants may be unwilling to assist with the settlement of trades for U.S. resident securityholders of companies with operations in the U.S. cannabis industry, which may prohibit or significantly impair the ability of securityholders in the U.S. to trade our securities. In the event residents of the U.S. are unable to settle trades of our securities, this may affect the pricing of such securities in the secondary market, the transparency and availability of trading prices and the liquidity of these securities.
The COVID-19 pandemic could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely restricted the level of economic activity around the world, including where we operate in the U.S. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic the governments of many countries, states, provinces, municipalities and other geographic regions have taken preventative or protective actions, such as imposing restrictions on travel and business operations, ordering temporary closures of businesses and advising or requiring individuals to limit or forego their time outside of their homes. Numerous businesses have temporarily closed voluntarily or closed permanently. Although some preventative or protective actions have been eased or lifted in varying degrees by different governments of various countries, states and municipalities, COVID-19, including new and highly contagious variants of COVID-19, continues to spread quickly throughout the world. Notwithstanding widespread vaccine availability within the U.S., the emergence of COVID-19 variants and slowing vaccination rates in certain localities have resulted in increased infection rates and has caused, and may continue to cause, several jurisdictions to reinstitute certain COVID-19 restrictions. Additional waves of increased COVID-19 infections as well as COVID-19 related restrictions imposed by various governmental authorities (including, for example, requirements to show proof of vaccination), could negatively impact our supply chain, as well as traffic and sales volume for our products, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
While many closures or restrictions have eased as the spread of COVID-19 and infection rates decline, if the pandemic persists, including if and when new variants of the virus emerge, closures or other restrictions on the conduct our business operations or of third party manufacturers, suppliers or vendors could disrupt our supply chain. Quarantines, shelter-in-place and similar government orders, or the perception that such orders, shutdowns or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, could impact personnel or the availability or cost of materials, which could in turn disrupt our supply chain. In addition, as a result of COVID-19, we have in certain cases implemented work-from-home policies for certain employees, and the effects of our work-from-home policies may negatively impact productivity, disrupt access to books and records, increase cybersecurity risks and the risk of inadvertent disclosure of confidential information and disrupt our business. In addition, the continued spread of COVID-19 could result in under-utilization of our assets as a result of disruptions in labor supply, as well as delays and increased costs in construction and expansion projects.
The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve rapidly, and the extent of its effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain, including the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic, the development and availability of effective treatments and vaccines, further actions taken by governments and other third parties to contain or mitigate its impact, the direct and indirect economic effects of the pandemic and related containment measures, and new information that will emerge concerning the severity and impact of COVID-19 and new variants of the virus, among others. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, our businesses could also be negatively impacted should the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic lead to changes in consumer behavior, such as reductions in discretionary spending. In addition, a severe or prolonged recession resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic would likely materially affect our business and the value of our Subordinated Voting Shares.
We expect to be subject to taxation in both Canada and the U.S., which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are a Canadian corporation, and as a result generally would be classified as a non-U.S. corporation under the general rules of U.S. federal income taxation. Section 7874 of U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), however, contains rules that can cause a non-U.S. corporation to be taxed as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under Section 7874 of the Code, a corporation created or organized outside of the U.S. will nevertheless be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which is referred to as an inversion, if each of the following three conditions are met: (i) the non-U.S. corporation acquires, directly or indirectly, or is treated as acquiring under applicable U.S. Treasury regulations, substantially all of the assets held, directly or indirectly, by a U.S. corporation or constituting a U.S. trade or business, (ii) after the acquisition, the former shareholders of the acquired U.S. corporation hold at least 80% (by vote or value) of the shares of the non-U.S. corporation by reason of holding shares of the acquired U.S. corporation or acquired trade or business, and (iii) after the acquisition, the non-U.S. corporation’s expanded affiliated group does not have substantial business activities in the non-U.S. corporation’s country of organization or incorporation when compared to the expanded affiliated group’s total business activities.
Pursuant to Section 7874 of the Code, we are classified as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and are subject to U.S. federal income tax on our worldwide income. Regardless of any application of Section 7874 of the Code, however, we expect to be treated as a Canadian resident company for purposes of the Canadian Income Tax Act, as amended. As a result, we will be subject to taxation both in Canada and the U.S., which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are a holding company and our ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to shareholders may be limited.
We are a holding company and essentially all of our assets are the capital stock of our subsidiaries. We currently conduct substantially all of our business through our subsidiaries, which currently generate substantially all of our revenues. Consequently, our cash flows and ability to complete current or desirable future growth opportunities are largely dependent on the earnings of our subsidiaries and the distribution of those earnings to Jushi Holdings Inc. The ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends and other distributions will depend on those subsidiaries’ operating results and will be subject to applicable laws and regulations that require that solvency and capital standards be maintained by a subsidiary company and contractual restrictions contained in the instruments governing any current or future indebtedness of our subsidiaries. In the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization of our subsidiaries, holders of indebtedness and trade creditors of that subsidiary may be entitled to payment of their claims from that subsidiary’s assets before we or our shareholders would be entitled to any payment or residual assets.
We face increasing competition that may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face competition from companies that may have greater capitalization, access to public equity markets, longer operating histories and more manufacturing, retail and marketing experience than us. As we execute our growth strategy, operators in markets we enter in the future will become direct competitors, and we are likely to continue to face increasing and intense competition from these companies. Increased competition by larger and better financed competitors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If the number of users of adult-use and medical marijuana in the U.S. increases, the demand for products will increase. Consequently, we expect that competition will become more intense as current and future competitors begin to offer an increasing number of diversified products to respond to such increased demand. To remain competitive, we will require a continued investment in research and development, marketing, sales and client support. We may not have sufficient resources to maintain sufficient levels of investment in research and development, marketing, sales and client support efforts to remain competitive, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The cannabis industry is undergoing rapid growth and substantial change, which have resulted in an increase in competitors, consolidation and the formation of strategic relationships. Acquisitions or other consolidating transactions could harm us in a number of ways, including losing customers, revenue and market share, or forcing us to expend greater resources to meet new or additional competitive threats, all of which could harm our operating results. As competitors enter the market and become increasingly sophisticated, competition in our industry may intensify and place downward pressure on prices for our products and services, which could result in impairment of our asset values and negatively impact our profitability.
We may not be able to accurately forecast our operating results and plan our operations due to uncertainties in the cannabis industry.
Because U.S. federal and state laws prevent widespread participation in and otherwise hinder market research in the medical and adult-use cannabis industry, the third-party market data available to us is limited and unreliable. Accordingly, we must rely largely on our own market research to forecast sales as detailed forecasts are not generally obtainable from other sources at this early stage of the cannabis industry. Our market research and projections of estimated total retail sales, demographics, demand, and similar consumer research, are based on assumptions from limited and unreliable market data, and generally represent the personal opinions of our management team as of the date of this prospectus. A failure in the demand for our products to materialize as a result of competition, technological change or other factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects.
We are subject to risks related to growing an agricultural product.
Our business involves the growing of cannabis, an agricultural product. Such business is subject to the risks inherent in the agricultural business, such as losses due to infestation by insects or plant diseases and similar agricultural risks. Although much of our growing is expected to be completed indoors, there can be no assurance that natural elements will not have a material adverse effect on our future production.
We are highly dependent on certain key personnel.
We depend on key managerial personnel, including James Cacioppo, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, for our continued success, and our anticipated growth may require additional expertise and the addition of new qualified personnel. Qualified individuals within the cannabis industry are in high demand and we may incur significant costs to attract and retain qualified management personnel, or be unable to attract or retain personnel necessary to operate or expand our business. The loss of the services of existing personnel or our failure to recruit additional key managerial personnel in a timely manner, or at all, could harm our business development programs and our ability to manage day-to-day operations, attract collaboration partners, attract and retain other employees, and generate revenues, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face inherent risks of liability claims related to the use of our products.
As a distributor of products designed to be ingested by humans, we face an inherent risk of exposure to product liability claims, regulatory action and litigation if our products cause or are alleged to have caused significant loss or injury. We may be subject to various product liability claims, including, among others, that our products caused injury or illness, include inadequate instructions for use or include inadequate warnings concerning possible side effects or interactions with other substances. A product liability claim or regulatory action against us, whether or not successful, could result in materially increased costs, adversely affect our reputation with our clients and consumers generally, and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may become party to litigation from time to time in the ordinary course of business which could adversely affect our business. Should any litigation in which we become involved be determined against us, such a decision could adversely affect our ability to continue operating and the market price for the Subordinate Voting Shares. Even if we achieve a successful result in any litigation in which we are involved, the costs of litigation and redirection of our management’s time and attention could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Consumer preferences may change, and we may be unsuccessful in acquiring or retaining consumers and keeping pace with changing market developments. This could result in lower than expected demand for our products, which could adversely affect our revenues.
As a result of constantly changing consumer preferences, consumer products often attain financial success for a limited period of time. Even if our products achieve financial success, there can be no assurance that we are able to maintain that success or that those products will enable us to continue to be profitable. Our success will be significantly dependent upon our ability to develop new and improved product lines and adapt to consumer preferences. Even if we are successful in introducing new products or further developing our current products, the failure of those products to gain consumer acceptance or the failure to update our products in ways that our customers expect could cause a decline in our products’ popularity and impair our brand. In addition, we may be required to invest significant amounts of capital in the creation of new product lines, brands, marketing campaigns, packaging and other product features—none of which are guaranteed to be successful. Failure to introduce new features and product lines and to achieve and sustain market acceptance, or our inability to satisfy consumer preferences, could adversely affect our ability to generate sufficient revenue in order to maintain profitability.
The cannabis industry is in its early stages of development and it is likely that we, and our competitors, will seek to introduce new products in the future. We may not be successful in developing effective and safe new products, anticipating shifts in social trends and consumer demands, bringing such products to market in time to be effectively commercialized, or obtaining any required regulatory approvals, which, together with any capital expenditures made in the course of such product development and regulatory approval processes, may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our medical marijuana business may be impacted by consumer perception of the cannabis industry, which we cannot control or predict.
We believe that the medical marijuana industry is highly dependent upon consumer perception regarding the safety, efficacy and quality of medical marijuana distributed to those consumers. Consumer perception of our products may be significantly influenced by scientific research or findings, regulatory investigations, litigation, media attention and other publicity regarding the consumption of medical marijuana products. There can be no assurance that future scientific research, findings, regulatory proceedings, litigation, media attention or other research findings or publicity will be favorable to the medical marijuana market or any particular product, or consistent with earlier publicity. Future research reports, findings, regulatory proceedings, litigation, media attention or other publicity that are perceived as less favorable than, or that question, earlier research reports, findings or publicity could have a material adverse effect on the demand for our products and our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Product recalls could result in a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Manufacturers and distributors of products are sometimes subject to the recall or return of their products for a variety of reasons, including product defects, such as contamination, unintended harmful side effects or interactions with other substances, packaging safety and inadequate or inaccurate labelling disclosure. If any of our products are recalled due to an alleged product defect or for any other reason, we could be required to incur the unexpected expense of the recall and any legal proceedings that might arise in connection with the recall. We may lose a significant amount of sales and may not be able to replace those sales at an acceptable margin or at all. In addition, a product recall may require significant management attention. Although we have detailed procedures in place for testing our products, there can be no assurance that any quality, potency or contamination problems will be detected in time to avoid unforeseen product recalls, regulatory action or lawsuits. Additionally, if one of our significant brands were subject to recall, the image of that brand and Jushi generally could be harmed. Any recall could lead to decreased demand for our products and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, product recalls may lead to increased scrutiny of our operations by regulatory agencies, requiring further management attention and potential legal fees and other expenses.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business or our market, our share price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Subordinate Voting Shares will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business, our market or our competitors. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Subordinated Voting Shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business or industry, the trading price of our shares would likely decline. In addition, if our operating results fail to meet the forecast of analysts, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline.
We are subject to security risks related to our products as well as our information and technology systems.
Given the nature of our product and its limited legal availability, we are at significant risk of theft at our facilities. We implement security measures to counteract this threat, but there is no guarantee that these measures will be sufficient. A breach of our security measures at one of our facilities could expose us to additional liability and to potentially costly litigation, increase expenses relating to the resolution and future prevention of these breaches and may deter potential patients from choosing our products.
In addition, we collect and store personal information about our patients and we are responsible for protecting that information from privacy breaches. We store certain personally identifiable information and other confidential information of our customers on our systems and applications. Though we maintain robust, proprietary security protocols, we may experience attempts by third parties to obtain unauthorized access to the personally identifiable information and other confidential information of our customers. This information could also be otherwise exposed through human error or malfeasance. The unauthorized access or compromise of this personally identifiable information and other confidential information could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A privacy breach may occur through procedural or process failure, information technology malfunction, or deliberate unauthorized intrusions. Theft of data for competitive purposes, particularly patient lists and preferences, is an ongoing risk whether perpetrated via employee collusion or negligence or through deliberate cyber-attack. Any such theft or privacy breach would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations depend and will depend, in part, on how well we protect our networks, equipment, information technology (IT), systems and software against damage from a number of threats, including, natural disasters, intentional damage and destruction, fire, power loss, hacking, computer viruses, vandalism and theft. Our operations also depend and will continue to depend on the timely maintenance, upgrade and replacement of networks, equipment, IT systems and software, as well as preemptive expenses to mitigate the risks of failures. Any of these and other events could result in information system failures, delays and/or increase in capital expenses. The failure of information systems or a component of information systems could, depending on the nature of any such failure, adversely impact our reputation and results of operations.
We have a substantial level of indebtedness, and we may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful. The terms of our indebtedness may also impair our ability to respond to changing business and economic conditions and may seriously harm our business.
We had $158.8 million of indebtedness, excluding leases and property, plant, and equipment financing obligations of $6.7 million, as of March 31, 2022. We have incurred significant indebtedness under our 10% Senior Secured Notes, Acquisition Facility (as defined herein) and certain acquisition-related promissory notes to fund working capital and other cash needs and to fund acquisitions. We expect to incur additional indebtedness in the future, particularly if we use remaining borrowing availability under the Acquisition Facility to finance all or a portion of any future acquisitions.
Our debt service cost for the 10% Senior Secured Notes is approximately $1.9 million per calendar quarter and our debt service cost for the Acquisition Facility is approximately $1.6 million per calendar quarter (and, following the first quarter of 2024, will increase in connection with certain amortization payments we are required to make). The 10% Senior Secured Notes and the Acquisition Facility are secured by all material assets and owned equity of the Company and certain of its wholly-owned direct and indirect subsidiaries, subject to certain exclusions including cannabis, cannabis-related, hemp and hemp-related permits and licenses, most real property, accounts receivable, inventory, and assets and equity interests that cannot be collateralized pursuant to law or contractual obligation.
In addition, the terms of our existing debt instruments require, and any debt instruments we enter into in the future may require, that we comply with certain restrictions and covenants. These covenants and restrictions, as well as any significant increase in our indebtedness, could adversely impact us for a number of reasons, including:
|•||resulting in an event of default if we fail to satisfy our obligations under our outstanding debt or fail to comply with the financial or other restrictive covenants contained in the agreements governing our other indebtedness, which event of default could result in all of our debt becoming immediately due and payable and could permit our lenders and noteholders to foreclose on the assets securing any such debt;|
|•||increasing our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions;|
|•||requiring a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, therefore reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures and future business opportunities;|
|•||limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes; and|
|•||limiting our ability to adjust to changing market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who have less debt.|
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We cannot assure that we will generate a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations or if we are unable to refinance existing indebtedness on favorable terms, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and thus render us unable to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations, the terms of our debt instruments may prohibit such dispositions. We may not otherwise be able to consummate those dispositions or be able to obtain the proceeds which we could realize from them and any such proceeds received may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due, which would seriously harm our business and prospects.
To service our debt obligations, fund our operations and execute on our business plan, we require a significant amount of cash to meet our needs, which depends on many factors beyond our control, and management has determined that there is substantial doubt as to our ability to continue as a going concern for a period within the next twelve months based on the uncertainty about these factors.
We require substantial cash to service our debt and other obligations when due, fund our operations and execute on our business plan. Pursuant to accounting standards codification (ASC) 205 Presentation of Financial Statements, we are required to and do evaluate at each annual and interim period whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within twelve months after the date that our consolidated financial statements for such period are issued.
As reflected in our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2022 contained elsewhere in this prospectus, we have incurred losses from operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022, have an accumulated deficit of $262.2 million as of March 31, 2022, and have cash and cash equivalents of $75.7 million as of March 31, 2022. Additionally, as of March 31, 2022, we had an aggregate principal amount of $74.9 million of 10% Senior Secured Notes that will mature on January 15, 2023, which is within twelve months of the date that the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements were issued for the first quarter ended March 31, 2022. Based on the definitions in the relevant accounting standards, management has determined that this condition raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. This evaluation does not consider the potential mitigating effect of management’s plans that have not been fully implemented. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2022 have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern, and do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
We are pursuing strategies to obtain the required additional funding primarily to fund the 10% Senior Secured Notes and future operations. These strategies may include, but are not limited to: (i) ongoing efforts with certain lenders to refinance the 10% Senior Secured Notes; (ii) deferral of certain expenditures, including capital projects, and reallocation of funds for debt repayment, if the need arose; (iii) alternative sources of financing, including debt through secured borrowings and equity through a base shelf prospectus, which allows us to offer up to C$500 million in securities in Canada through the end of 2023. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to refinance the 10% Senior Secured Notes, generate positive results from operations, or obtain additional liquidity when needed or under acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to repay or refinance the 10% Senior Secured Notes when due, the holders of the 10% Senior Secured Notes may pursue certain remedies relating to the collateral securing such indebtedness and obligations or pursue other remedies in accordance with the Indenture and the documents relating to such collateral. Additionally, such a default in repayment of the 10% Senior Secured Notes would likely permit the lenders under our Acquisition Facility and certain other debt obligations to declare all indebtedness and obligations thereunder immediately due and payable. Any such default in payment of our debt obligations and pursuit of the remedies of the respective lenders thereunder would have a material adverse effect on us and would likely adversely affect the market price of our Subordinate Voting Shares.
We are subject to labor risks and a dispute with our employees or labor unions could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Labor unions are working to organize workforces in the cannabis industry in general. As of June 30, 2022, approximately 119 of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements with labor unions, and it is possible that employees in certain other facilities or dispensaries will be organized in the future, which could lead to work stoppages or increased labor costs and adversely affect our business, profitability and our ability to reinvest into the growth of our business. Labor unions may also limit our flexibility in dealing with our workforce. Work stoppages and instability in our union relationships could delay the production and sale of our products, which could strain relationships with customers and cause a loss of revenues which would adversely affect our operations.
Reliance on Third-Party Suppliers, Manufacturers and Contractors; Reliance on Key Inputs
The Company's business is dependent on a number of key inputs from third-parties and their related costs including raw materials and supplies related to its cultivation and manufacturing operations, as well as electricity, water and other local utilities. Due to the uncertain regulatory landscape for regulating cannabis in the U.S., the Company's third-party suppliers, manufacturers and contractors may elect, at any time, to decline or withdraw services necessary for the Company's operations. Any significant interruption or negative change in the availability or economics of the supply chain for key inputs from third-parties could materially impact the business, financial condition and operating results of the Company. Some of these inputs may only be available from a single supplier or a limited group of suppliers in the future. If the Company becomes reliant upon a sole source supplier and that supplier was to go out of business or suspend services, the Company might be unable to find a replacement for such source in a timely manner or at all. Similarly, if any future sole source supplier were to be acquired by a competitor, that competitor may elect not to sell to the Company in the future. Additionally, any supplier could at any time suspend or withdraw services. Any inability to secure required supplies and services or to do so on appropriate terms could have a materially adverse impact on the Company's business, financial condition and operating results.
We rely on key utility services.
Our business is dependent on a number of key inputs and their related costs, including raw materials and supplies related to our growing operations, as well as electricity, water and other local utilities. Our cannabis growing operations consume and will continue to consume considerable energy, which makes us vulnerable to rising energy costs. Accordingly, rising or volatile energy costs may, in the future, adversely impact our business and our ability to operate profitably. Additionally, any significant interruption or negative change in the availability or economics of the supply chain for our key inputs could materially impact our business, financial condition and operating results. If we are unable to secure required supplies and services on satisfactory terms, it could have a materially adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Inflation could pose a risk to our business.
A continued upward rate of inflation could influence the profits that we generate from our business. When the rate of inflation rises, the operational costs of running our company also increases, such as labor costs, raw materials and public utilities, thus affecting our ability to provide our serves at competitive prices. An increase in the rate of inflation could force our customers to search for other products, causing us to lose business and revenue.
Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment
Cannabis is illegal under U.S. federal law.
In the U.S., cannabis is largely regulated at the state level. Each state in which we operate (or are currently proposing to operate) authorizes, as applicable, medical and/or adult-use cannabis production and distribution by licensed or registered entities, and numerous other states have legalized adult-use of cannabis in some form. However, under U.S. federal law, the possession, use, cultivation, and transfer of cannabis and any related drug paraphernalia is illegal, and any such acts are criminalized under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Cannabis is a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA, and is thereby deemed to have a high potential for abuse, no accepted medical use in the U.S., and a lack of safety for use under medical supervision. The concepts of “medical cannabis,” “retail cannabis” and “adult-use cannabis” do not exist under U.S. federal law. Although we believe that our business activities are compliant with applicable state and local laws in the U.S., strict compliance with state and local cannabis laws would not provide a defense to any federal proceeding which may be brought against us. Any such proceedings may result in a material adverse effect on us. We derive 100% of our revenues from the cannabis industry. The enforcement of applicable U.S. federal laws poses a significant risk to us.
Violations of any U.S. federal laws and regulations could result in significant fines, penalties, administrative sanctions, or settlements arising from civil proceedings conducted by either the U.S. federal government or private citizens. We may also be subject to criminal charges under the CSA, and if convicted could face a variety of penalties including, but not limited to, disgorgement of profits, cessation of business activities or divestiture. Any of these penalties could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and ability to conduct our business, our holding (directly or indirectly) of medical and adult-use cannabis licenses in the U.S., our financial position, operating results, profitability or liquidity or the market price of our publicly-traded shares. In addition, it is difficult for us to estimate the time or resources that would be needed for the investigation, settlement or trial of any such proceedings or charges, and such time or resources could be substantial.
The regulation of cannabis in the U.S. is uncertain.
Our activities are subject to regulation by various state and local governmental authorities. Our business objectives are contingent upon, in part, compliance with regulatory requirements enacted by these governmental authorities and obtaining all regulatory approvals necessary for the sale of our products in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Any delays in obtaining or failure to obtain necessary regulatory approvals would significantly delay our development of markets and products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, although we believe that our operations are currently carried out in accordance with all applicable state and local rules and regulations, no assurance can be given that new rules and regulations will not be enacted or that existing rules and regulations will not be applied in a manner that could limit or curtail our ability to distribute or produce marijuana. Amendments to current laws and regulations governing the importation, distribution, transportation and/or production of marijuana, or more stringent implementation thereof could have a substantial adverse impact on us.
Government inquiries and investigations could harm our business or reputation.
As the regulatory framework for cannabis continues to evolve in the U.S., government officials often exercise broad discretion in deciding how to interpret and apply applicable local, state and federal laws or regulations. In the future, we may receive formal and informal inquiries from or become subject to investigations by various governmental regulatory authorities regarding our business and compliance with federal, state and local laws, regulations, or standards. Any determination or allegation that our products, operations or activities, or the activities of our employees, contractors or agents, are not in compliance with existing laws, regulations or standards, could adversely affect our business in a number of ways. Even if such inquiries or investigations do not result in the imposition of fines, interruptions to our business, loss of suppliers or other third-party relationships, terminations of necessary licenses and permits, the existence of those inquiries or investigations alone could create negative publicity that could harm our business or reputation.
We are constrained by law in our ability to market our products in the jurisdictions in which we operate.
State and local jurisdictions enforce extensive and detailed requirements applicable to cannabis products in their jurisdiction. In addition, the Federal Trade Commission (the FTC) regulates advertising of consumer products generally, imposes requirements regarding the use and content of testimonials and endorsements, and also requires that advertising claims be adequately substantiated. As such, our brand and portfolio of products must be specifically tailored, and our marketing activities carefully structured, to comply with the state and local regulations, as well as the FTC’s rules and regulations. These restrictions may preclude us from effectively marketing our products and competing for market share, or impose costs on us that cannot be absorbed through increased selling prices for our products.
Anti-Money Laundering Laws in the U.S. may limit access to funds from banks and other financial institutions.
In February 2014, the Treasury Department Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) issued guidance (which is not law) with respect to financial institutions providing banking services to cannabis businesses, including burdensome due diligence expectations and reporting requirements. While the guidance advised prosecutors not to focus their enforcement efforts on banks and other financial institutions that serve marijuana-related businesses, so long as they meet certain conditions, this guidance does not provide any safe harbors or legal defenses from examination or regulatory or criminal enforcement actions by the U.S. Department of Justice (the DOJ), FinCEN, or other federal regulators. Because of this and the fact that the guidance may be amended or revoked at any time, most banks and other financial institutions have not been willing to provide banking services to cannabis-related businesses. In addition to the foregoing, banks may refuse to process debit card payments and credit card companies generally refuse to process credit card payments for cannabis-related businesses. As a result, we may have limited or no access to banking or other financial services in the U.S., and may have to operate our U.S. business on an all-cash basis. If we are unable or limited in our ability to open or maintain bank accounts, obtain other banking services or accept credit card and debit card payments, it may be difficult for us to operate and conduct our business as planned. Although, we are actively pursuing alternatives that ensure our operations will continue to be compliant with the FinCEN guidance (including requirements related to disclosures about cash management and U.S. federal tax reporting), we may not be able to meet all applicable requirements.
We are also subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the U.S. that involve money laundering, financial recordkeeping and proceeds of crime, including the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970 (commonly known as the Bank Secrecy Act), as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the U.S.
In the event that any of our operations or related activities in the U.S. were found to be in violation of money laundering legislation or otherwise, those transactions could be viewed as proceeds of crime under one or more of the statutes noted above or any other applicable legislation. This could restrict or otherwise jeopardize our ability to declare or pay dividends or effect other distributions.
The re-classification of cannabis or changes in U.S. controlled substance laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If cannabis is re-classified as a Schedule II or lower controlled substance under the CSA, the ability to conduct research on the medical benefits of cannabis would most likely be more accessible; however, if cannabis is re-classified as a Schedule II or lower controlled substance, the resulting re-classification would result in the need for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the FDA) if medical claims are made about our medical cannabis products. As a result of such a re-classification, the manufacture, importation, exportation, domestic distribution, storage, sale and use of such products could become subject to a significant degree of regulation by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (the DEA). In that case, we may be required to be registered to perform these activities and have the security, control, recordkeeping, reporting and inventory mechanisms required by the DEA to prevent drug loss and diversion. Obtaining the necessary registrations may result in delay of the manufacturing or distribution of our products. The DEA conducts periodic inspections of registered establishments that handle controlled substances. Failure to maintain compliance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The DEA may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations, or initiate proceedings to restrict, suspend or revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could lead to criminal proceedings.
Potential regulation by the FDA could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Should the U.S. federal government legalize cannabis, it is possible that the FDA would seek to regulate it under the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act of 1938. Additionally, the FDA may issue rules and regulations, including good manufacturing practices related to the growth, cultivation, harvesting and processing of medical cannabis. Clinical trials may be needed to verify efficacy and safety of our medical cannabis products. It is also possible that the FDA would require that facilities where medical-use cannabis is grown register with the agency and comply with certain federally prescribed regulations. In the event that some or all of these regulations are imposed, the impact on the cannabis industry is uncertain and could include the imposition of new costs, requirements, and prohibitions. If we are unable to comply with the regulations or registration as prescribed by the FDA, it may have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
We could be materially adversely impacted due to restrictions under U.S. border entry laws.
Because cannabis remains illegal under U.S. federal law, those investing in Canadian companies with operations in the U.S. cannabis industry could face detention, denial of entry or lifetime bans from the U.S. as a result of their business associations with U.S. cannabis businesses. Entry into the U.S. happens at the sole discretion of U.S. Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) officers on duty, and these officers have wide latitude to ask questions to determine the admissibility of a non-U.S. citizen or foreign national. The government of Canada has warned travelers on its website that previous use of cannabis, or any substance prohibited by U.S. federal law, could mean denial of entry to the U.S. Business or financial involvement in the cannabis industry in the U.S. could also be reason enough for denial of entry into the U.S. On September 21, 2018, the CBP released a statement outlining its current position with respect to enforcement of the laws of the U.S. It stated that Canada’s legalization of cannabis will not change CBP enforcement of U.S. laws regarding controlled substances. According to the statement, because cannabis continues to be a controlled substance under U.S. law, working in or facilitating the proliferation of the marijuana industry in U.S. states where it is legal under state law may affect admissibility to the U.S. On October 9, 2018, the CBP released an additional statement regarding the admissibility of Canadian citizens working in the legal cannabis industry in Canada. CBP stated that a Canadian citizen working in or facilitating the proliferation of the legal cannabis industry in Canada who seeks to come into the U.S. for reasons unrelated to the cannabis industry will generally be admissible to the U.S.; however, if such person is found to be coming into the U.S. for reasons related to the cannabis industry, such person may be deemed inadmissible. As a result, the CBP has affirmed that employees, directors, officers and managers of and investors in companies involved in business activities related to cannabis in the U.S. (such as Jushi), who are not U.S. citizens face the risk of being barred from entry into the U.S. for life.
As a cannabis company, we may be subject to heightened scrutiny in Canada and the U.S. that could materially adversely impact the liquidity of the Subordinate Voting Shares.
Our existing operations in the U.S., and any future operations, may become the subject of heightened scrutiny by regulators, stock exchanges and other authorities in the U.S. and Canada.
Given the heightened risk profile associated with cannabis in the U.S., The Canadian Depository of Securities (CDS) may implement procedures or protocols that would prohibit or significantly impair the ability of CDS to settle trades for companies that have cannabis businesses or assets in the U.S.
On February 8, 2018, following discussions with the Canadian Securities Administrators and recognized Canadian securities exchanges, the TMX Group, the parent company of CDS, announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding, which we refer to as the TMX MOU, with Aequitas NEO Exchange Inc., the CSE, the Toronto Stock Exchange, and the TSX Venture Exchange. The TMX MOU outlines the parties’ understanding of Canada’s regulatory framework applicable to the rules, procedures, and regulatory oversight of the exchanges and CDS as it relates to issuers with cannabis-related activities in the U.S. The TMX MOU confirms, with respect to the clearing of listed securities, that CDS relies on the exchanges to review the conduct of listed issuers. As a result, there is no CDS ban on the clearing of securities of issuers with cannabis-related activities in the U.S. However, there can be no assurances given that this approach to regulation will continue in the future. If such a ban were to be implemented, it would have a material adverse effect on the ability of holders of the Subordinate Voting Shares to settle trades. In particular, the Subordinate Voting Shares would become highly illiquid until an alternative was implemented and investors would have no ability to effect a trade of the Subordinate Voting Shares through the facilities of a stock exchange.
We may not be able to locate and obtain the rights to operate at preferred locations.
In Massachusetts and other states, the local municipality has authority to choose where any cannabis establishment will be located. These authorized areas are frequently removed from other retail operations. Because the cannabis industry remains illegal under U.S. federal law, the disadvantaged tax status of businesses deriving their income from cannabis, and the reluctance of the banking industry to support cannabis businesses, it may be difficult for us to locate and obtain the rights to operate at various preferred locations. Property owners may violate their mortgages by leasing to us, and those property owners that are willing to allow use of their facilities may require payment of above fair market value rents to reflect the scarcity of such locations and the risks and costs of providing such facilities.
As a cannabis business, we are subject to certain tax provisions that have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Under Section 280E of the Code “no deduction or credit shall be allowed for any amount paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business if such trade or business (or the activities which comprise such trade or business) consists of trafficking in controlled substances (within the meaning of schedule I and II of the Controlled Substances Act) which is prohibited by Federal law or the law of any State in which such trade or business is conducted.” This provision has been applied by the IRS to cannabis operations, prohibiting companies engaged in such operations from deducting expenses directly associated with the sale of cannabis. Section 280E of the Code may have a lesser impact on cannabis cultivation and manufacturing operations than on sales operations. Section 280E of the Code and related IRS enforcement activity has had a significant impact on the operations of cannabis companies. As a result of Section 280E of the Code, an otherwise profitable business may, in fact, operate at a loss, after taking into account its U.S. income tax expenses.
We may not have access to U.S. bankruptcy protections available to non-cannabis businesses.
Because cannabis is a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA, many courts have denied cannabis businesses federal bankruptcy protections, making it difficult for lenders to be made whole on their investments in the cannabis industry in the event of a bankruptcy. If we were to experience a bankruptcy, there is no guarantee that U.S. federal bankruptcy protections would be available to us, which would have a material adverse effect on us and may make it more difficult for us to obtain debt financing.
There is doubt regarding our ability to enforce contracts.
It is a fundamental principle of law that a contract will not be enforced if it involves a violation of law or public policy. Because cannabis remains illegal at a federal level in the U.S., judges in multiple states have on a number of occasions refused to enforce contracts for the repayment of money when the loan was used in connection with activities that violate U.S. federal law, even if there is no violation of state law. There remains doubt and uncertainty that we will be able to legally enforce our contracts. If we are unable to realize the benefits of or otherwise enforce the contracts into which we enter, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to limits on our ability to own the licenses necessary to operate our business, which will adversely affect our ability to grow our business and market share in certain states.
In certain states, the cannabis laws and regulations limit not only the number of cannabis licenses issued, but also the number of cannabis licenses that one person or entity may own in that state. For example, in Massachusetts, no person or entity may have an ownership interest in, or control over, more than three medical licenses or three adult-use licenses in any category, which include cultivation, product manufacturing, transport or retail. Such limitations on the acquisition of ownership of additional licenses within certain states may limit our ability to grow organically or to increase our market share in affected states.
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property.
As long as cannabis remains illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA, the benefit of certain federal laws and protections that may be available to most businesses, such as federal trademark and patent protection, may not be available to us. As a result, our intellectual property may never be adequately or sufficiently protected against the use or misappropriation by third parties. In addition, since the regulatory framework of the cannabis industry is in a constant state of flux, we can provide no assurance that we will ever obtain any protection for our intellectual property, whether on a federal, state or local level.
Our property is subject to risk of civil asset forfeiture.
Because the cannabis industry remains illegal under U.S. federal law, any property owned by participants in the cannabis industry that is either used in the course of conducting or comprises the proceeds of a cannabis business could be subject to seizure by law enforcement and subsequent civil asset forfeiture. Even if the owner of the property were never charged with a crime, the property in question could still be seized and subject to an administrative proceeding by which, with minimal process, it could become subject to forfeiture.
We may be at a higher risk of IRS audit.
We believe there is a greater likelihood that the Internal Revenue Service will audit the tax returns of cannabis-related businesses. Any such audit of our tax returns could result in our being required to pay additional tax, interest and penalties, as well as incremental accounting and legal expenses, which could be material.
We may be unable to obtain adequate insurance coverage.
We have obtained insurance coverage with respect to workers’ compensation, general liability, directors’ and officers’ liability, fire and other similar policies customarily obtained for businesses to the extent commercially appropriate; however, because we are engaged in and operate within the cannabis industry, there are exclusions and additional difficulties and complexities associated with our insurance coverage that could cause us to suffer uninsured losses, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and profitability. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or fully utilize such insurance coverage, if necessary.
We could be subject to criminal prosecution or civil liabilities under RICO.
RICO criminalizes the use of any profits from certain defined “racketeering” activities in interstate commerce. While intended to provide an additional cause of action against organized crime, due to the fact that cannabis is illegal under U.S. federal law, the production and sale of cannabis qualifies cannabis related businesses as “racketeering” as defined by RICO. As such, all officers, managers and owners in a cannabis related business could be subject to criminal prosecution under RICO, which carries substantial criminal penalties.
RICO can create civil liability as well: persons harmed in their business or property by actions which would constitute racketeering under RICO often have a civil cause of action against such “racketeers,” and can claim triple their amount of estimated damages in attendant court proceedings. Jushi or its subsidiaries, as well as its officers, managers and owners could all be subject to civil claims under RICO.
Risks Related to Owning Jushi’s Subordinate Voting Shares
Return on Subordinate Voting Shares is not guaranteed.
There is no guarantee that the Subordinate Voting Shares will earn any positive return in the short-term or long-term. A holding of Subordinate Voting Shares is speculative and involves a high degree of risk and should be undertaken only by holders whose financial resources are sufficient to enable them to assume such risks and who have no need for immediate liquidity in their investment. A holding of Subordinate Voting Shares is appropriate only for holders who have the capacity to absorb a loss of some or all of their holdings.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our shareholders.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial revenue, we may finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, marketing and distribution arrangements and other collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements or other sources. We do not currently have any committed external source of funds. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.
To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate product candidate development or future commercialization efforts
Sales of substantial amounts of Subordinate Voting Shares by our existing shareholders in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares.
Sales of a substantial number of Subordinate Voting Shares in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, or the availability of such securities for sale, could adversely affect the prevailing market prices for the Subordinate Voting Shares. As of August 4, 2022, we have an aggregate of 195,849,084 Subordinate Voting Shares issued and outstanding (excluding securities convertible into or exercisable for Subordinate Voting Shares). A decline in the market prices of the Subordinate Voting Shares could impair our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of securities should we desire to do so.
The market price for the Subordinate Voting Shares has been and is likely to continue to be volatile.
The market price for the Subordinate Voting Shares may be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors, many of which will be beyond our control, including, but not limited to, the following: (i) actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations; (ii) recommendations by securities research analysts; (iii) changes in the economic performance or market valuations of companies in the cannabis industry; (iv) additions or departures of our executive officers and other key personnel; (v) release or expiration of transfer restrictions on our issued and outstanding shares; (vi) regulatory changes affecting the cannabis industry generally and our business and operations; (vii) announcements by us and our competitors of developments and other material events; (viii) fluctuations in the costs of vital production materials and services; (ix) changes in global financial markets and global economies and general market conditions, such as interest rates and pharmaceutical product price volatility; (x) significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors; (xi) operating and share price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us or from a lack of market comparable companies; (xii) false or negative reports issued by individuals or companies who have taken aggressive short sale positions; and (xiii) news reports relating to trends, concerns, technological or competitive developments, regulatory changes and other related issues in our industry or target markets.
Financial markets have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market prices of equity securities of companies and that have often been unrelated to the operating performance, underlying asset values or prospects of those companies. Accordingly, the market price of the Subordinate Voting Shares may decline even if our operating results, underlying asset values or prospects have not changed.
These factors, as well as other related factors, may cause decreases in asset values that are deemed to be other than temporary, which may result in impairment losses. There can be no assurance that continuing fluctuations in price and volume will not occur. If such increased levels of volatility and market turmoil continue, our operations could be adversely impacted, and the trading price of the Subordinate Voting Shares could be materially adversely affected.
There may not be sufficient liquidity in the markets for our Subordinate Voting Shares.
Our Subordinate Voting Shares are listed for trading on the CSE under the trading symbol “JUSH” and quoted on the OTCQX Best Market under the symbol “JUSHF.” The liquidity of any market for the shares of our Subordinate Voting Shares will depend on a number of factors, including:
|•||the number of shareholders;|
|•||our operating performance and financial condition;|
|•||the market for similar securities;|
|•||the extent of coverage by securities or industry analysts; and|
|•||the interest of securities dealers in making a market in the shares.|
There can be no assurance that an active trading market for the Subordinate Voting Shares, will be sustained.
We will be subject to increased costs as a result of being a U.S. reporting company.
As a public issuer, we are subject to the reporting requirements and rules and regulations under the applicable Canadian securities laws and rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed from time to time. In addition, following the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, we will become subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and the regulations promulgated thereunder. Additional or new regulatory requirements may be adopted in the future. The requirements of existing and potential future rules and regulations will increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and may also place undue strain on our personnel, systems and resources, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The provisions of our articles of incorporation requiring exclusive forum in the courts of the province of British Columbia and appellate courts therefrom for certain disputes may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against us or our directors and officers.
Pursuant to section 28 of our articles of incorporation (the Articles), unless we approve or consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the courts of the province of British Columbia and appellate courts therefrom shall be the sole and exclusive forum for: (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of our Company, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer of our Company to our Company, (c) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) or the Notice of Articles or Articles of our Company (as either may be amended from time to time); or (d) any action asserting a claim otherwise related to the relationships among our Company, its affiliates and their respective shareholders, directors and/or officers, but this does not include claims related to the business carried on by our Company or such affiliates; provided however it is uncertain whether such provision would apply to actions arising under U.S. federal securities laws, and if it does, whether a British Columbia Court would enforce such provision since in accordance with Section 27 of the Exchange Act, United States federal courts shall have jurisdiction over all suits and any action brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder and that in accordance with Section 22 of the Securities Act, United States federal and state courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.
The choice of forum provision may limit the ability of our shareholders to bring a claim in a forum that they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, and may discourage such lawsuits. If a British Columbia court ruled the choice of forum provision was inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs to resolve such action in other jurisdictions. Our shareholders will not be deemed, by operation of the choice of forum provision, to have waived our obligation to comply with all applicable United States federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
We are an “emerging growth company” and will be able take advantage of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our Subordinate Voting Shares less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the JOBS Act) and, for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, or until the earliest of (i) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenues exceed $1.07 billion, (ii) the date that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, or (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt during the preceding three year period.
We intend to take advantage of these reporting exemptions described above until we are no longer an emerging growth company. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.
We cannot predict if investors will find our Subordinate Voting Shares less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Subordinate Voting Shares less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our Subordinate Voting Shares and the price of our Subordinate Voting Shares may be more volatile.
Our internal controls over financial reporting may not be effective, and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to their effectiveness, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business and reputation.
We are not currently required to maintain an effective system of internal controls as defined by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. As a U.S. public company, we will be required to evaluate our internal controls over financial reporting following the applicable phase-in period. When we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as defined by the JOBS Act, we will also be required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not completed an assessment, nor has our independent registered public accounting firm tested our systems of internal controls. We cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing and any remediation actions or the impact of the same on our operations. If we are not able to implement the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue an adverse opinion due to ineffective internal controls over financial reporting and we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC. In addition, we may be required to incur costs in improving our internal control system and the hiring of additional personnel. Any such action could negatively affect our results of operations and cash flows.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting which, if not corrected, could affect the reliability of our consolidated financial statements and have other adverse consequences.
In connection with the audit of our financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 and in the process of preparing our financial statements as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2022, the following material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting were identified: (i) insufficient accounting resources, inadequate level of precision in the performance of review controls, or effective communication, as it relates to: financial reporting, accounting and valuation for complex financial instruments, inventory, property plant and equipment, accruals, accounting for impairment and business combinations; and (ii) insufficient information technology general controls, as it relates to user access controls, change management, passwords, access controls reviews, backup and cybersecurity vulnerability.
A material weakness is a deficiency or combination of deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the financial statements would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Our management is in the process of developing a remediation plan. The material weaknesses will be considered remediated when our management designs and implements effective controls that operate for a sufficient period of time and management has concluded, through testing, that these controls are effective. Our management will monitor the effectiveness of its remediation plans and will make changes management determines to be appropriate.
If not remediated, these material weaknesses could result in material misstatements to our annual or interim consolidated financial statements that might not be prevented or detected on a timely basis, or in delayed filing of required periodic reports, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, our share price.
USE OF PROCEEDS
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the Subordinate Voting Shares by the selling shareholders. To the extent exercised for cash, we will receive the applicable exercise price for any options or warrants exercised for shares that may be sold in this offering. We will not receive any proceeds from the exercise of any of such options or warrants that are exercised on a net or “cashless” basis in accordance with their terms.
We have not declared dividends or distributions on Subordinate Voting Shares in the past. In addition, the Note Indenture governing the 10% Senior Secured Notes and the Acquisition Facility, as defined and described in more detail under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Description of Indebtedness,” contains covenants that, among other things, limit our ability to declare or pay dividends or make certain other payments. We currently intend to reinvest all future earnings to finance the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not intend to pay dividends on Subordinate Voting Shares in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on the financial condition, business environment, operating results, capital requirements, any contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends (including the Note Indenture) and any other factors that the board of directors deems relevant. Other than the Note Indenture or the Acquisition Facility, we are not bound or limited in any way to pay dividends in the event that the board of directors determined that a dividend was in the best interest of our shareholders.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may”, “will”, “would”, “could”, “should”, “believes”, “estimates”, “projects”, “potential”, “expects”, “plans”, “intends”, “anticipates”, “targeted”, “continues”, “forecasts”, “designed”, “goal”, or the negative of those words or other similar or comparable words. Any statements contained in this prospectus that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects.
Forward-looking statements may relate to future financial conditions, results of operations, plans, objectives, performance or business developments. These statements speak only as of the date they are made and are based on information currently available and on the then-current expectations of the party making the statement and assumptions concerning future events, which are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from that which was expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, risks and uncertainties related to: the performance of our business and operations; the receipt and/or maintenance by us of required licenses and permits in a timely manner or at all; the intention to grow our business and operations; the expected growth in the number of the people using medical and/or adult-use cannabis products; expectations of market size and growth in the U.S.; the competitive conditions and increasing competition of the cannabis industry; applicable laws, regulations and any amendments thereof; our competitive and business strategies; our operations in the U.S., the characterization and consequences of those operations under federal U.S. law, and the framework for the enforcement of medical and adult-use cannabis and cannabis-related offenses in the U.S.; the completion of additional cultivation and production facilities; the general economic, financial market, regulatory and political conditions in which we operate; the U.S. regulatory landscape and enforcement related to cannabis, including political risks; anti-money laundering laws and regulation; other governmental and environmental regulation; public opinion and perception of the cannabis industry; U.S. border entry; heightened scrutiny of cannabis companies in Canada and the U.S.; the enforceability of contracts; reliance on the expertise and judgment of our senior management; proprietary intellectual property and potential infringement by third parties; the concentration of voting control in certain shareholders and the unpredictability caused by our capital structure; the management of growth; risks inherent in an agricultural business; risks relating to energy costs; risks associated to cannabis products manufactured for human consumption, including potential product recalls; reliance on key inputs, suppliers and skilled labor; cybersecurity risks; ability and constraints on marketing products; fraudulent activity by employees, contractors and consultants; tax and insurance related risks; risk of litigation; conflicts of interest; risks relating to certain remedies being limited and the difficulty of enforcement of judgments and effecting service outside of Canada; security risks; risks related to future acquisitions or dispositions; sales by existing shareholders; limited research and data relating to cannabis; the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy and social acceptance of cannabis; the availability of financing opportunities, the ability to make payments on existing indebtedness; the potential impact to the Company of management’s determination regarding substantial doubt about its ability to continue to operate as a going concern; risks associated with economic, political and social conditions; risks related to contagious disease, particularly COVID-19; dependence on management; and other risks described in this prospectus and described from time to time in documents filed by us with the SEC.
The forward-looking statements contained herein are based on certain key expectations and assumptions, including, but not limited to, with respect to expectations and assumptions concerning: (i) receipt and/or maintenance of required licenses and third party consents; and (ii) the success of our operations. These assumptions are based on estimates prepared by us using data from publicly available governmental sources, as well as from market research and industry analysis, and on data and knowledge of this industry that we believe to be reasonable. However, although generally indicative of relative market positions, market shares and performance characteristics, such data is inherently imprecise. While we are not aware of any misstatement regarding any industry or government data presented herein, the current marijuana industry involves risks and uncertainties and is subject to change based on various factors. Although we believe that the expectations and assumptions on which such forward-looking statements are based are reasonable, undue reliance should not be placed on the forward-looking statements contained herein because no assurance can be given that they will prove to be correct. Since forward-looking statements address future events and conditions, by their very nature they involve inherent risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those currently anticipated due to a number of factors and risks. These include, but are not limited to, the risks described above and other factors beyond our control, as more particularly described under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Consequently, all forward-looking statements made in this prospectus are qualified by such cautionary statements and there can be no assurance that the anticipated results or developments will actually be realized or, even if realized, that they will have the expected consequences to or effects on us. The cautionary statements contained or referred to in this prospectus should be considered in connection with any subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements that we and/or persons acting on our behalf may issue. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, other than as required by law.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
We are not selling any Subordinate Voting Shares in this offering; however, if you purchase Subordinate Voting Shares in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price paid per Subordinate Voting Share sold in this offering and our net tangible book value per Subordinate Voting Share after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the public offering price per Subordinate Voting Share is substantially in excess of the net tangible book value per share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding shares. Our net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets) less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares issued and outstanding.
As at March 31, 2022, we had a historical negative net tangible book value of $58.2 million, or $(0.31) per share, based on 189,728,625 shares outstanding as at such date. Dilution is calculated by subtracting net tangible book value per share from the public offering price paid per Subordinate Voting Share in this offering. Because the selling shareholders may sell or otherwise dispose of the Subordinate Voting Shares covered by this prospectus in a number of different ways and at varying prices, the amount of dilution will vary depending on the price paid for any such shares sold in this offering.
The following table provides our cash and cash equivalents (excluding restricted cash) and our capitalization as of March 31, 2022. You should read this table together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus and the sections of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Description of Capital Stock.”
|March 31, 2022|
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||75,717|
|10% Senior Secured Notes||$||74,935|
|Acquisition-related promissory notes payable||35,614|
|Total debt - principal amounts||$||165,514|
|Less: debt issuance costs and original issue discounts||(22,542||)|
|Total debt - carrying amounts||$||142,972|
|Finance lease liabilities||101,736|
|Total debt and finance leases||$||244,708|
|Common stock, no par value; 189,728,625 issued and outstanding||$||—|
|Additional paid-in capital||456,719|
|Total Jushi shareholders’ equity||$||194,544|
This prospectus relates to the possible resale by the Selling Shareholders of up to 48,260,954 Subordinate Voting Shares consisting of: (i) 7,491,952 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding options issued under the Company's equity plan, (ii) 661,607 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon the exercise of options issued under the Company’s equity plan, (iii) 1,538,326 Subordinate Voting Shares issued as restricted stock awards under the Company's equity plan, (iv) 715,846 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon exercise of warrants issued in connection with services rendered to the Company; (v) 1,535,000 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants issued in connection with services provided to the Company; (vi) 6,900,000 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants issued in connection with the Company's 10% Senior Secured Notes; (vii) 1,311,555 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon exercise of warrants issued in connection with the Company's 10% Senior Secured Notes; (viii) 11,575,000 Subordinate Voting Shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants issued in private placement transactions; (ix) 198,468 Subordinate Voting Shares issued upon the exercise of warrants issued in private placement transactions; and (x) 16,333,200 Subordinate Voting Shares issued in private placement and acquisition transactions. The Selling Shareholders may from time to time offer and sell any or all of the Subordinate Voting Shares set forth below pursuant to this prospectus. When we refer to the “Selling Shareholders” in this prospectus, we mean the persons listed in the table below, and the pledgees, donees, transferees, assignees, successors and other successors-in-interest who later come to hold any of the Selling Shareholders’ interest in the Subordinate Voting Shares other than through a public sale.
The following table sets forth, based on information currently known by us as of August 4, 2022, (i) the number of Subordinate Voting Shares held of record or beneficially by the Selling Shareholders as of such date (as determined below), (ii) the number of Subordinate Voting Shares that may be offered under this prospectus by the Selling Shareholders and (iii) any material relationships the Selling Shareholders may have had with us within the past three years. The beneficial ownership of the Subordinate Voting Shares set forth in the following table is determined in accordance with Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act, and the information is not necessarily indicative of beneficial ownership for any other purpose. Under Rule 13d-3, beneficial ownership includes any shares as to which the selling securityholders have sole or shared voting power or investment power and also any shares which each Selling Shareholder, respectively, has the right to acquire within 60 days of August 4, 2022 through the exercise of any stock option, warrant or other rights. The applicable percentage ownership for each Selling Shareholder listed below is based upon 195,849,084 Subordinate Voting Shares outstanding as of August 4, 2022.
We cannot advise you as to whether the Selling Shareholders will in fact sell any or all of such Subordinate Voting Shares. In addition, the Selling Shareholders may sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of, at any time and from time to time, the Subordinate Voting Shares in transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act after the date of this prospectus. A Selling Shareholder may sell all, some or none of such shares in this offering. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Unless otherwise indicated in the footnotes below, the address of each Selling Shareholder is c/o Jushi Holdings Inc., 301 Yamato Road, Suite 3250, Boca Raton, FL 33431.
|Name of Selling Shareholder||Subordinate Voting |
before the Offering(1)
Voting Shares to be
Offered for the
Shares Owned by
Voting Shares to be
Owned by the
after the Offering
|Louis Jon Barack(4)||5,448,107||1,793,000||4,321,773||2.2||%|
|Meanwhile Productions, LLC||1,263,622||550,000||713,622||*|
|Navy Capital Green Co-Investment Fund, LLC||3,272,037||872,037||2,400,000||1.2||%|
|Navy Capital Green Fund, LP||2,131,518||381,518||1,750,000||*|
|Ken Rosen and Lisa Rosen||2,269,900||750,000||1,519,900||*|
|MM-LEC Holdings, LLC||1,439,618||250,000||1,189,618||*|
|Green Ache'rs Consulting Limited||316,623||316,623||—||*|
|Verdant Nevada LLC||211,081||211,081||—||*|
|NuLeaf Capital Investors Group LLC||2,564,306||2,564,306||—||*|
|NuLeaf CLV Capital Investors LLC||488,889||488,889||—||*|
|Colin Braid (10)||102,000||58,000||44,000||*|
|Canaccord Genuity Corp.(11)||670,201||165,846||504,355||*|
|*||Less than 1%.|
|(1)||The number of subordinate voting shares owned prior to the offering and that may be offered for resale includes 1,538,326 shares of common stock issuable upon settlement of restricted stock awards where settlement remains contingent upon satisfaction of vesting conditions.|
|(2)||Includes subordinate voting shares underlying unvested stock options.|
|(3)||Consists of: (i) 4,452,827 subordinate voting shares, 5,385,000 subordinate voting shares underlying stock options and 5,000,000 subordinate voting shares underlying warrants held by Mr. Cacioppo; (ii) 2,500,000 subordinate voting shares and 4,000,000 subordinate voting shares underlying warrants held by OEP Opportunities, L.P.; (iii) 1,400,000 subordinate voting shares and 2,775,000 subordinate voting shares underlying warrants held by One East Capital Advisors, LP; (iv) 2,303,350 subordinate voting shares and 4,175,000 subordinate voting shares underlying warrants held by One East Partners LP; (v) 795,488 subordinate voting shares held by ST2 LLC; (vi) 160,000 subordinate voting shares underlying warrants issued to One East Management Services, LLC; (vii) 3,000,000 subordinate voting shares underlying warrants issued to Serpentine Capital Management Fund II, LLC; and (viii) 900,000 subordinate voting shares underlying warrants issued to JAC Serpentine, LLC. Mr. Cacioppo directly or beneficially owns and controls each of the foregoing entities. Mr. Cacioppo is our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman.|
|(4)||Mr. Barack is our President, Corporate Secretary and Interim Chief Financial Officer.|
|(5)||Mr. Garcia-Berg is our Chief Operations Officer.|
|(6)||Mr. Cross is a member of our board of directors.|
|(7)||Mr. Monroe is a member of our board of directors.|
|(8)||Mr. Adderton is a member of our board of directors.|
|(9)||Ms. Hahn is a member of our board of directors.|
|(10)||Held by Canaccord Genuity Corp. in trust for Mr. Braid.|
|(11)||Includes 292,463 subordinated voting shares held for the benefit of an employee. Such selling shareholder disclaims beneficial ownership of 292,463 of such shares held for the benefit of an employee. Such selling shareholder is affiliated with Canaccord Genuity LLC, a registered broker-dealer. Canaccord Genuity LLC and affiliates have provided investment banking services to the Company from time to time.|
Includes: (i) 166,800 subordinate voting shares and 1,000,000 options held by Mr. Cacioppo personally; and (ii) 300,000 subordinate voting shares held by One East Partners LP.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with “Summary Consolidated Financial Data,” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to those described in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. You should read “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus.
We are a vertically integrated, multi-state cannabis operator engaged in retail, distribution, cultivation, and processing operations in both medical and adult-use markets. Our management team is focused on building a diverse portfolio of cannabis assets through opportunistic investments and pursuing application opportunities in attractive limited license jurisdictions. We have targeted assets in highly populated, limited license medical markets on a trajectory toward adult-use legalization, including Pennsylvania and Ohio, markets that are in the process of transitioning to adult-use, namely Virginia, and limited license, fast-growing, large adult-use markets, such as Illinois, Nevada and Massachusetts, and certain municipalities of California.
Refer to the “Business” section and to our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information about us and recent developments.
Factors Affecting our Performance and Related Trends
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely restricted the level of economic activity around the world, including where we operate in the United States. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic the governments of many countries, states, provinces, municipalities and other geographic regions have taken preventative or protective actions, such as imposing restrictions on travel and business operations, ordering temporary closures of businesses and advising or requiring individuals to limit or forego their time outside of their homes. Numerous businesses have temporarily closed voluntarily or closed permanently. Although some preventative or protective actions have been eased or lifted in varying degrees by different governments of various countries, states and municipalities, COVID-19, including new and highly contagious variants of COVID-19, continues to spread quickly throughout the world. Notwithstanding widespread vaccine availability within the U.S., the emergence of COVID-19 variants and slowing vaccination rates in certain localities have resulted in increased infection rates and has caused, and may continue to cause, several jurisdictions to reinstitute certain COVID-19 restrictions. Additional waves of increased COVID-19 infections as well as COVID-19 related restrictions imposed by various governmental authorities (including, for example, requirements to show proof of vaccination), could negatively impact our supply chain, as well as traffic and sales volume for our products, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company implemented new procedures at all operating locations to better protect the health and safety of our employees, medical patients, and customers across its network of dispensaries. Depending on the location, some of the initiatives include, but are not limited to: reducing the number of point-of-sale registers, restricting the number of people permitted in-store, restricting general store hours to permit access to those most susceptible to infection, and offering curbside pick-up. The Company has also directed a significant amount of traffic to its recently launched online informational tool and reservation platform, www.beyond-hello.com, which enables a medical patient or customer to view real-time pricing and product availability, and reserve products for convenient in-store pick-up at BEYOND/HELLO™ locations across Pennsylvania, Illinois, California, and Virginia.
Although the Company’s dispensaries and grower-processor facilities have remained open throughout the pandemic, the Company has experienced disruptions related to supply chains, labor supply and delays in expansion projects and, in certain states, cannabis license applications, and may experience further disruptions as a result of COVID-19. In particular:
|·||We may experience significant reductions or volatility in demand for our products as customers may not be able to purchase our products due to illness, quarantine or government or self-imposed restrictions placed on our dispensaries’ operations or reduction in operational hours due to labor shortages;|
|·||We may be unable to meet production demand if a particular grower-processor or section of the grower-processor is closed due to illness, quarantine or government or self-imposed restrictions placed on our facility operations or reduction in operational hours due to labor shortages;|
|·||Social distancing measures or changes in consumer spending behaviors due to COVID-19 may impact traffic in our dispensaries and such actions could result in a loss of sales and profit;|
|·||We may experience temporary or long-term disruptions in our supply chain;|
|·||Transportation delays and cost increases, closures or disruptions of businesses and facilities, or social, economic, political or labor instability, may impact our or our suppliers’ operations or our customers; and|
|·||We may experience impairments of assets in markets that are disproportionately impacted by these and other effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.|
To date, our financial condition and results of operations have not been materially impacted by COVID-19. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our future results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with certainty, including possible future outbreaks of new strains of the virus and governmental and consumer responses to such future developments.
Competition and Pricing Pressure
The cannabis industry is subject to significant competition and pricing pressures, which is often market specific and may be transitory from period to period. We may experience significant competitive pricing pressures as well as competitive products and service providers in the markets in which we operate. Several significant competitors may offer products and/or services with prices that may match or are lower than ours. We believe that the products and services we offer are generally competitive with those offered by other cannabis companies. It is possible that one or more of our competitors could develop a significant research advantage over us that allows them to provide superior products or pricing, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Continued pricing pressure or shifts in customer preferences could adversely impact our customer base or pricing structure and have a material impact on our results of operations in future periods.
Components of Results of Operations
Our significant revenue streams are retail and wholesale. Retail revenues are primarily from the sale of cannabis products at our medical and adult-use dispensaries. Wholesale revenues are from the cultivation, production and distribution of our cannabis products sold to medical and adult-use dispensaries.
Cost of Goods Sold and Gross Profit
Cost of goods sold includes costs related to the internal cultivation and production of cannabis products, the acquisition cost of finished goods from other licensed producers operating within the states we operate, and packaging costs. Costs to cultivate and produce our cannabis products are primarily comprised of: direct labor costs; direct materials including nutrients and supplies; and facilities costs including depreciation, repairs and maintenance, rent, utilities, property taxes, security and insurance. The primary factors that can impact gross profit include the mix and margins on products sold. Costs are also affected by various state regulations that limit the sourcing and procurement of cannabis product, which may create fluctuations in margins over comparative periods as the regulatory environment changes.
Selling, general and administrative expenses represent costs incurred at our corporate and administrative offices, primarily related to: compensation expenses; depreciation and amortization; professional fees and legal expenses; marketing, advertising and selling costs; facility-related expenses, including rent and security; insurance; software and technology expenses; and impairments.
We expect to continue to invest considerably in this area to support our expansion plans and to support the increasing complexity of the cannabis business. As we continue to expand and open additional dispensaries, we expect our sales and marketing expenses to continue to increase. Furthermore, we expect to continue to incur acquisition and deal costs related to our expansion plans, and we anticipate an increase in compensation expenses related to recruiting and hiring new talent, and in professional fees associated with becoming compliant with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, SEC reporting requirements and other costs associated with being an SEC-registered company.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net, consists of interest expense, net of interest income; net investment gains (losses); net gains on business combinations; gains (losses) on debt modification; and other.
Interest income relates primarily to interest earned on cash and cash equivalent balances in bank accounts. Interest expense consists primarily of interest on borrowings. Net gains on business combinations result from bargain purchases, the related tax effects and other related adjustments. Net investment gains (losses) comprise realized and unrealized gains on securities, equity investments and financial assets, such as notes or contingent asset receivables, if applicable. Gains (losses) on debt modifications relate to exchanged or extinguished debt and other related modifications.
Provision for Income Taxes
Provision for income taxes is calculated using the asset and liability method. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on enacted tax rates and laws for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
As we operate in the cannabis industry, we are subject to the limits of Section 280E of the Code under which we are only allowed to deduct expenses directly related to the cost of producing or acquiring the products we sell.
Results of Operations
(amounts expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise stated)
the Three Months
|For the Year Ended |
|COST OF GOODS SOLD||(42,776||)||(22,934||)||87||%||(125,898||)||(42,431||)||197||%|
|LOSS FROM OPERATIONS||$||(18,196||)||$||(3,170||)||474||%||$||(35,765||)||$||(16,554||)||116||%|
|OTHER (EXPENSE) INCOME:|
|Interest expense, net||$||(10,116||)||$||(6,835||)||48||%||$||(30,610||)||$||(15,333||)||100||%|
|Fair value gains (losses) on derivatives||14,309||(9,358||)||253||%||105,170||(173,707||)||161||%|
|Total net other income (expense)||$||3,490||$||(19,569||)||118||%||$||82,869||$||(185,338||)||145||%|
|INCOME (LOSS) BEFORE PROVISION FOR INCOME TAXES||$||(14,706||)||$||(22,739||)||35||%||$||47,104||$||(201,892||)||123||%|
|Provision for income taxes||(5,051||)||(8,312||)||(39||)%||(29,625||)||(10,623||)||179||%|
|NET INCOME (LOSS) AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)||$||(19,757||)||$||(31,051||)||36||%||$||17,479||$||(212,515||)||108||%|
|Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests||—||(175||)||(100||)%||(2,772||)||(1,908||)||45||%|
|NET INCOME (LOSS) AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS) ATTRIBUTABLE TO JUSHI SHAREHOLDERS||$||(19,757||)||$||(30,876||)||36||%||$||20,251||$||(210,607||)||110||%|
|NET INCOME (LOSS) AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS) PER SHARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO JUSHI SHAREHOLDERS - BASIC||$||(0.11||)||$||(0.20||)||45||%||$||0.12||$||(1.94||)||106||%|
|Weighted average shares outstanding - BASIC||183,226,027||157,176,375||17||%||170,292,035||108,485,158||57||%|
|NET (LOSS) AND COMPREHENSIVE (LOSS) PER SHARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO JUSHI SHAREHOLDERS - DILUTED||$||(0.16||)||$||(0.20||)||20||%||$||(0.42||)||$||(1.94||)||78||%|
|Weighted average shares outstanding - DILUTED||207,838,906||157,176,375||32||%||201,610,251||108,485,158||86||%|
Comparison of First Quarter Results
(amounts expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise stated)
The following table presents revenue by type for the periods indicated:
|Three Months Ended March 31, 2022||Three Months Ended March 31, 2021|
Revenue, net, for the three months ended March 31, 2022 totaled $61,888, as compared to $41,675 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $20,213, or 49%. The increase in retail revenue is due primarily to the Company’s expansion of cannabis operations from build outs and acquisitions. Retail revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was derived from twenty-nine cannabis dispensaries located in Pennsylvania (eighteen), Illinois (four), Massachusetts (two), California (two), Virginia (two) and Nevada (one), whereas, for the three months ended March 31, 2021, Retail revenue was derived from seventeen cannabis dispensaries located in Pennsylvania (eleven), Illinois (four), California (one) and Virginia (one).
The increase in wholesale revenue is primarily attributable to increases in cultivation and manufacturing activity at our grower processor facilities: (i) in Massachusetts due to the acquisition of Nature’s Remedy, which occurred in the third quarter of 2021; (ii) in Virginia due to the commencement of operations at the Dalitso facility in the third quarter of 2021; and (iii) in Pennsylvania due to continued increase sales volume. Wholesale revenue includes inter-segment revenue of $5,595, which is eliminated in consolidation.
Cost of Goods Sold and Gross Profit
Cost of goods sold totaled $42,776 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $22,934 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $19,842, or 87%. The increase in costs of goods sold is primarily attributable to the increase in amount of products sold.
Gross profit totaled $19,112 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $18,741 for three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of approximately $371, or 2%. As a percentage of revenue, gross profit for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, was 31% and 45%, respectively. Gross margin decreased primarily due to: (1) approximately $3,500 of labor and overhead costs related to the ramp up of operations in our grower-processor facilities in Virginia and Massachusetts and start-up costs at our new retail dispensaries; and (2) the sell through of inventory acquired in the Nature's Remedy and Apothecarium acquisitions which had a fair value step-up of approximately $3,000. Gross margins were also impacted by the increased promotional activity at our retail locations in Illinois and Massachusetts, and pricing compression in wholesale as we continue to build-out our brands across state markets.
Operating expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022 were $37,308, as compared to $21,911 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $15,397, or 70%.
|Three Months Ended March 31,|
|2022||2021||$ Change||% Change|
|Salaries, wages and employee related expenses (S&W)||$||17,336||$||9,882||7,454||75||%|
|Stock-based compensation expense||6,964||4,013||2,951||74||%|
|Rent and related expenses||3,089||1,799||1,290||72||%|
|Professional fees and legal expenses||2,706||1,693||1,013||60||%|
|Depreciation and amortization expense||2,256||974||1,282||132||%|
|Software and technology||1,530||567||963||170||%|
|Marketing and selling||969||675||294||44||%|
|Travel, entertainment and conferences||739||405||334||82||%|
|Administration and application fees||140||353||(213||)||(60||)%|
|Acquisition and deal costs||141||238||(97||)||(41||)%|
|Total operating expenses||$||37,308||$||21,911||$||15,397||70||%|
The total increase in operating expenses is due to the increase in the size and scope of our general and administrative functions to support our expanded operations resulting from organic growth and acquisitions. The primary increases are from an increase in: salaries, wages, labor and employee related expenses as a result of the increase in the number of employees to support our ongoing growth and resulting from recent acquisitions; share-based compensation primarily due to recent stock options granted to new employees and management; professional fees and legal expenses, primarily due to our transition to accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (US GAAP) reporting and costs associated with our registration with the SEC, which we expect to complete by the third quarter of 2022; and depreciation and amortization expense and rent and related expenses due to the additions of property, plant and equipment and finance lease right-of-use assets from acquisitions and investment in infrastructure as we continue to scale.
Other (Expense) Income
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net, was $10,116 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $6,835 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, an increase of $3,281, or 48%. The increase in interest expense, net, is due primarily to an increase in interest-bearing borrowings including finance leases and acquisition-related financing.
Fair Value Changes in Derivatives
Fair value changes in derivatives was a net gain of $14,309 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to a net loss of $9,358 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Fair value changes in derivatives include the fair value gains or losses relating to the derivative warrants liability. The derivative warrants are required to be remeasured at fair value at each reporting period. The fair value changes in derivatives for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 were primarily attributable to the movement in the Company’s stock price during the corresponding period.
Other expense, net, was $703 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $3,376 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of $2,673 or 79%. Other expense, net, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 primarily related to losses on redemptions of 10% Senior Secured Notes of $3,815, partially offset by $1,149 gains on investments in securities.
Income Tax Expense
Total income tax expense was $5,051 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $8,312 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of $3,261, or 39%. The decrease in income tax expense is primarily due to a reduction in our accrual for uncertain tax positions related to periods no longer open under the statute of limitations.
Comparison of Fiscal Year Results
(amounts expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise stated)
The following table presents revenue by type for the years indicated:
|Year Ended December 31, 2021||Year Ended December 31, 2020|
Revenue, net, for the year ended December 31, 2021 totaled $209,292, as compared to $80,772 for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $128,520, or 159%. The increase in revenue is due primarily to increases in retail and wholesale cannabis revenues in both medical and adult-use markets. The increase in retail revenue is primarily attributable to the build-out of retail dispensaries, acquisitions made in 2021, along with the continued growth in states where the Company operates. Retail revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 was derived from a total of twenty-eight cannabis dispensaries located in Pennsylvania (eighteen), Illinois (four), Massachusetts (two), California (two), and Virginia (two), whereas, in the prior year, retail revenue was derived from a total of fifteen cannabis dispensaries located in Pennsylvania (ten), Illinois (three), California (one) and Virginia (one). The increase in wholesale revenue is primarily attributable to increases in cultivation and manufacturing activity at our grower processor facilities: (i) in Pennsylvania due to the acquisition of PAMS in the third quarter of 2020; (ii) in Massachusetts due to the acquisition of Nature’s Remedy in the third quarter of 2021; and (iii) in Virginia due to the commencement of operations at the Dalitso facility in the third quarter of 2021.
Cost of Goods Sold and Gross Profit
Cost of goods sold totaled $125,898 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $42,431 for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $83,467, or 197%. The increase in costs of goods sold is primarily attributable to the increase in revenue.
Gross profit totaled $83,394 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $38,341 for year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of approximately $45,053, or 118%. Gross profit increased primarily due to the increase in revenue. As a percentage of revenue, gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, was 40% and 47%, respectively. Gross margin decreased primarily due to an increase in new location start-up costs of $4,795, a one-time inventory reserve for certain vape products subject to a recall in Pennsylvania of $2,021, price compression in our largest markets of Pennsylvania and Illinois and at the wholesale level due to increased promotional activity as we continue to build-out our brands across state markets. Start-up costs represent costs incurred to prepare a location for its intended use. The inventory recall reserve relates to the potential impact of the Pennsylvania Department of Health recall and ban of vape products containing certain cannabis concentrates.
Operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2021 were $119,159, as compared to $54,895 for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $64,264, or 117%.
|Year Ended December 31,||$|
|Salaries, wages and employee related expenses (S&W)||$||58,228||$||21,781||$||36,447||167||%|
|Stock-based compensation expense||14,506||9,592||4,914||51||%|
|Depreciation and amortization expense||5,805||4,154||1,651||40||%|
|Rent and related expenses||7,115||3,754||3,361||90||%|
|Professional fees and legal expenses||6,507||3,975||$||2,532||64||%|
|Marketing and selling||3,563||2,511||1,052||42||%|
|Administration and application fees||1,131||1,589||(458||)||(29||)%|
|Software and technology||3,313||1,049||2,264||216||%|
|Travel, entertainment and conferences||2,352||756||1,596||211||%|
|Facility rent expense||2,607||1,489||1,118||75||%|
|Acquisition and deal costs||1,624||810||814||100||%|
|Total operating expenses||$||119,159||$||54,895||$||64,264||117||%|
The total increase in operating expenses is due to the increase in the size and scope of our general and administrative functions to support our expanded operations resulting from organic growth and acquisitions. The primary increases are from an increase in salaries, wages, labor and employee-related expenses as well as an increase in share-based compensation, as a result of the increase in the number of employees. In addition, an increase in depreciation and amortization expense and facilities-related expenses were due to the additions of property, plant and equipment and finance lease right-of-use assets from acquisitions and investments in infrastructure that resulted in more capitalized assets. Also, the Company had an increase in professional fees and legal expenses, primarily due to our transition to US GAAP reporting and costs associated with our registration with the SEC, which we expect to complete by the third quarter of 2022. The Company also recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $1,783 and an asset impairment charge of $4,561 for the year ended December 31, 2021 related to the write-off of goodwill associated with Nevada upon completion of the Company’s annual impairment assessment and the asset impairment charges relate to Jushi Europe SA (Jushi Europe).
Other (Expense) Income, Net
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net, was $30,610 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $15,333 for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $15,277, or 100%. The increase in interest expense, net, is due primarily to an increase in interest-bearing borrowings including finance leases and acquisition-related financing.
Fair Value Changes in Derivatives
Fair value changes in derivatives was a net gain of $105,170 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to a net loss of $173,707 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The total net fair value gain on derivatives for the year ended December 31, 2021 were attributed to fair value gains relating to the derivative warrants of $104,594 and a gain on the Pennsylvania Dispensary Solutions, LLC (PADS) purchase option of $575. At the time of the PAMS acquisition, as part of the agreements with Vireo Health, Inc (Vireo), the seller of PAMS, Jushi received an assignable purchase option (PADS Purchase Option) to acquire 100% of the equity of PADS. The derivative warrants were issued in connection with the debt offerings announced in December 2019 and June 2020 and are required to be remeasured at fair value at each reporting period. The gains on derivative warrants for the year ended December 31, 2021 were due to the decrease in the fair value of the derivative warrants liability primarily as a result of a decrease in the Company’s stock price during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Other income, net, was $8,309 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $3,702 for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of approximately $4,607, or 124%. The increase was primarily attributable to: (i) a $10,248 gain on the legal settlement of a breach of contract case involving San Felasco Nurseries, Inc. (the SFN Litigation); (ii) an increase in net investment gains of $3,689 primarily from net fair value gains on investments during 2021 compared to declines in the fair values of the Company’s holdings in investments caused by the general market decline experienced during the first quarter of 2020 as a result of COVID-19; (iii) a decrease of $10,149 in net gains on business combinations, which related to the 2020 acquisitions of PAMS and TGS Illinois Holdings, LLC (TGSIH) (now known as Beyond Hello IL Holdings, LLC (BHILH); and (iv) an increase in losses on debt redemptions and extinguishments/modifications of $1,962.
Income Tax Expense
Total income tax expense was $29,625 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $10,623 for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $19,002, or 179%. The increase was comprised of an increase in current tax expense of $20,555 and a decrease in deferred tax expense of $1,553. The increase in current tax expense relates primarily to the increase in taxable gross profit generated from the Company’s increased retail and wholesale revenues. The Company also realized additional taxable income from a legal settlement related to the SFN litigation.
Net Loss Attributable to Non-Controlling Interests
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests was $2,772 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $1,908 for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $864. Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests for the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily relates to the non-controlling interests of Jushi Europe, whereas net loss attributable to non-controlling interests for the year ended December 31, 2020 related to the non-controlling interests of Dalitso, Jushi Europe, Agape Total Health Care Inc. (Agape) and other non-material non-controlling interests. The non-controlling interests of Dalitso and Agape were purchased by the Company during the fourth quarter of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021, respectively.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
(amounts expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise stated)
The major components of our statements of cash flows for the periods presented are as follows:
the Three Months Ended
|For the Year Ended |
|Net cash flows used in operating activities (1)||$||(2,666||)||$||(3,121||)||$||(14,304||)||$||(12,364||)|
|Net cash flows used in investing activities||(33,068||)||(8,906||)||(113,455||)||(45,800||)|
|Net cash flows provided by financing activities (1)||16,497||88,295||137,663||105,132|
|Effect of currency translation on cash||(9||)||(40||)||(274||)||(47||)|
|Net change in cash and cash equivalents||$||(19,246||)||$||76,228||$||9,630||$||46,921|
(1) The Company restated the classification of interest payments on its finance leases in the consolidated statement of cash flows during the year ended December 31, 2021. The correction resulted in an increase in net cash flows used in operating activities from $7,928 (as reported) to $14,304 (as restated) and a corresponding increase in net cash flows provided by financing activities from $131,287 (as reported) to $137,663 (as restated). Refer to Note 25 - Correction of Previously Issued Financial Statements of the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Cash Flows Used in Operating Activities
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Net cash used in operations during the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $2,666, as compared to $3,121 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The improvement in cash used in operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 is due primarily to improved management of working capital, partially offset by an increase in net loss after non-cash adjustments.
Year Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Net cash used in operations during the year ended December 31, 2021 was $14,304, as compared to $12,364 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in cash used in operations is due primarily to increased operating expenses to support our growth and interest paid on finance leases, partially offset by improved management of working capital.
Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Net cash used in investing activities totaled $33,068 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $8,906 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was comprised of: $26,476 for the purchases of property, plant and equipment for use in the Company’s operations; and $6,592 paid for the acquisition of Apothecarium, net of cash acquired. The net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was comprised of: $3,592 paid for the acquisition of Grover Beach; $8,566 for the purchases of property, plant and equipment for use in the Company’s operations; partially offset by: $3,252 in proceeds from sale of investments.
Year Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Net cash used in investing activities totaled $113,455 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $45,800 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 was comprised of: $75,296 for the purchases of and deposits for property, plant and equipment for use in the Company’s operations; $47,308 in payments for the acquisitions of Nature’s Remedy, Ohio Green Grow LLC, OhiGrow, Grover Beach and Organic Solutions of the Desert, LLC, net of cash acquired; partially offset by: $9,149 in proceeds from sales and redemptions of investments.
The net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 was comprised of: $30,117 in payments for the acquisitions of PAMS, PADS (including the PADS Purchase Option), Agape, GSG SBCA, Inc. (GSG Santa Barbara) and BHILH, net of cash acquired (and excluding payments for non-controlling interests); $22,780 for the purchases of and deposits for property, plant and equipment; $11,500 in payments for investments in securities and an equity investment; partially offset by: $18,597 in proceeds from investments and financial assets.
Cash Flows provided by Financing Activities
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Net cash provided by financing activities totaled $16,497 for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $88,295 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The net cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was comprised of: $13,680 in proceeds from private placement equity offerings in January and February 2022; $3,265 in proceeds from other debt; and $541 in proceeds from the exercise of warrants and stock options; partially offset by: $601 in lease obligation payments; $258 in principal redemption repayments on the 10% Senior Secured Notes; and $130 in payments on other debt.
The net cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was comprised of: $85,660 in proceeds from public equity offerings, net of issuance costs, in January and February 2021; $9,886 in proceeds from the exercise of warrants and stock options; and $1,134 in proceeds from other debt; partially offset by: $8,134 in principal redemption repayments on the 10% Senior Secured Notes; and $251 in lease obligation payments.
Year Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Net cash provided by financing activities totaled $137,663 for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to $105,132 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 was comprised of: $85,660 in proceeds from the issuance of shares for cash, net of issuance costs, in connection with public offerings in January and February 2021; $17,128 in proceeds from the exercise of warrants and stock options; $38,299 in proceeds from the new Acquisition Facility and $7,910 in proceeds from other debt instruments, partially offset by: $8,134 in principal redemption repayments on the 10% Senior Secured Notes; $2,037 in payments on acquisition-related promissory notes and other debt; and $1,163 in lease obligation payments.
The net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 was comprised of: $51,861 in proceeds from the issuance of the 10% Senior Secured Notes and related warrants, net of financing costs; $46,587 in proceeds from the exercise of warrants and stock options; $29,243 in proceeds from the issuance of shares for cash, net of issuance costs, in connection with a public offering in October of 2020; $3,529 in proceeds from financing obligations and an unsecured credit line, net of a repayments; proceeds of $1,994 from a contribution for Jushi Europe from the non-controlling partner net of other immaterial transactions; partially offset by: $24,003 in principal payments on acquisition-related promissory notes payable; $2,231 in payments for acquisitions from non-controlling interests for Dalitso and BHILH; and $1,848 in lease obligation payments.
Balance Sheet Exposure
As of March 31, 2022, primarily all of our balance sheet is exposed to U.S. cannabis-related activities. We believe our operations are in material compliance with all applicable state and local laws, regulations and licensing requirements in the states in which we operate. However, cannabis remains illegal under U.S. federal law. All of our revenue is derived from U.S. cannabis operations. For information about risks related to U.S. cannabis operations, please refer to “Risk Factors” in this prospectus.
Sources and Uses of Liquidity
Since our inception, we have funded our operations and capital spending through cash flows from sales, and the issuance of debt and equity. Jushi has successfully raised approximately $461 million to date (which includes equity offerings, 10% Senior Secured Notes, warrant/option exercises and draw downs on the Acquisition Facility), of which approximately $47 million was invested by management and insiders. We generate cash from sales and are deploying capital to acquire and develop assets capable of producing additional revenues and earnings over both the immediate and long term to support our business growth and expansion. As of March 31, 2022, we have borrowed $40 million from the $100 million Acquisition Facility to fund the cash portions of acquisitions. We may increase the total commitment of the Acquisition Facility by an aggregate amount of up to $25 million subject to certain conditions, and have the ability under our current base shelf prospectus in Canada to issue C$500 million subscription receipts, debt securities, convertible securities, warrants, subordinate voting shares, and units, or any combination thereof.
Our primary uses of cash are for working capital requirements, acquisitions, capital expenditures and debt service payments. Working capital is used principally for our personnel as well as costs related to the purchase of inventory, cultivation, manufacture and production of our products. Our capital expenditures consist primarily of the construction and improvement of grower-processer facilities and retail dispensaries.
As reflected in our unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, we have incurred losses from operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022, have an accumulated deficit of $262,175 as of March 31, 2022, and have cash and cash equivalents of $75,717 as of March 31, 2022. As discussed in Note 9 – Debt in the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements, the 10% Senior Secured Notes, which mature on January 15, 2023, had an aggregate principal amount outstanding of $74,935. In addition, the Acquisition Facility (see Note 9 – Debt in the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements) required us to maintain certain covenants which we may not have been in compliance with if the court accepted Jushi Europe’s petition for bankruptcy. We were also projected to violate certain financial covenants further within the next twelve months from March 31, 2022. We have been working with various lenders to refinance the 10% Senior Secured Notes at terms most favorable to us. Given the changing conditions in the debt capital markets, refinancing term sheets are still being negotiated. These conditions raised a substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.
In April 2022, we entered into an amendment with the lender of the Acquisition Facility, which included a waiver related to Jushi Europe’s bankruptcy and a change to the terms of the Total Leverage ratio, as defined in the Acquisition Facility agreement, and deferred the commencement date of leverage testing under the Acquisition Facility. We are pursuing strategies to obtain the required additional funding primarily to fund the 10% Senior Secured Notes and future operations. The strategies may include, but are not limited to: (i) ongoing efforts with certain lenders to refinance the 10% Senior Secured Notes; (ii) deferral of certain expenditures, including capital projects, and reallocate funds for debt repayment, if the need arose; (iii) alternative sources of debt and equity financing, including secured borrowings and through a base shelf prospectus, which allows us to offer up to C$500,000 in securities in Canada through the end of 2023. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to refinance the 10% Senior Secured Notes, generate positive results from operations, or obtain additional liquidity when needed or under acceptable terms, if at all.
Description of Indebtedness
The Company had the following instruments as of March 31, 2022:
|Designation of Instrument (1)|
|10% Senior Secured Notes||68,122||(2)||$||74.9||10||%||N/A||01/15/2023|
|Unsecured Promissory Note - Nature's Remedy||1||$||11.5||8||%||N/A||09/10/2024|
|Unsecured Promissory Note - Nature's Remedy||1||$||5.0||8||%||N/A||09/10/2026|
|Unsecured Promissory Note - Apothecarium||1||$||5.9||0||%||N/A||3/16/2027|
|Unsecured Promissory Note - Apothecarium||1||$||3.9||0||%||N/A||3/16/2027|
|Unsecured Promissory Note - PAMS||1||$||3.8||8||%||N/A||08/11/2024|
|Secured Promissory Note - OSD||1||$||3.1||4||%||N/A||04/30/2027|
|Unsecured Credit Line - Jushi Europe (3)||2||$||1.7||5||%||N/A||11/11/2024|
|Unsecured Credit Line - Jushi Europe (4)||2||$||1.7||0.5||%||N/A||03/07/2022|
|Secured Promissory Note - Arlington Facility||1||$||4.9||5.9||%||N/A||01/01/2027|
|Unsecured Convertible Promissory Note - Dalitso (5)||1||$||2.4||1||%||$2.65||11/19/2022|
|(1)||Excludes leases and financing obligations for property, plant and equipment.|
|(2)||This number includes 68,093 10% Senior Secured Notes due January 15, 2023, which are issued in denominations of $1,000. This number also includes 29 Warrant Notes which were not exchanged for 10% Senior Secured Notes due January 15, 2023.|
|(3)||The total funds available under this facility are EUR 1.5 million, which has been converted into U.S. Dollars for purposes of this prospectus.|
|(4)||The total funds available under this facility are approximately EUR 1.49 million which has been converted into U.S. Dollars for purposes of this prospectus.|
|(5)||Convertible into 910,000 Subordinate Voting Shares at a fixed conversion price per share of $2.65 after first anniversary.|
On December 23, 2019, we announced the receipt of initial subscriptions totaling $27.5 million in connection with a debt financing (the Debt Financing). Insiders and certain Founders committed an aggregate of $18.5 million in connection with the Debt Financing. Investors were provided two financing structure options. The first structure allowed subscribers to acquire Warrant Notes maturing on January 15, 2023. The principal amount outstanding under such Warrant Notes bears interest at a rate of 10.0% per annum, payable in cash quarterly. Under the first structure subscribers were also issued Debt Warrants to acquire a number of Subordinate Voting Shares of the Company equal to 75% of the principal amount of the applicable Warrant Note divided by the exercise price of $1.5787. The Debt Warrants have an expiration date of December 23, 2024. The second structure allowed subscribers to acquire Original Issue Discount 10% Senior Secured Notes (OID Notes) maturing on January 15, 2023. The principal amount outstanding under such OID Notes bears interest at a rate of 10.0% per annum, payable in cash quarterly. The combined annual yield on the OID Notes is approximately 17%. Participants electing to receive OID Notes did not receive Debt Warrants.
In addition to the maturity dates, both structures have the same key terms. The Company’s obligations under both the Warrant Notes and the OID Notes are secured by the assets of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries (subject to certain exclusions) and are guaranteed by certain subsidiaries of the Company. Due to insider participation, a special committee of the board of directors, comprised entirely of independent members, was formed to set, review, negotiate and approve of the terms of the Debt Financing. ATB Capital Markets (formerly, AltaCorp Capital Inc.) was engaged by the special committee of the board of directors to provide its opinion as to the fairness, from a financial perspective, of the terms of the Debt Financing.
On January 31, 2020, the Company announced an upsizing of the Debt Financing, and was in receipt of aggregate cash proceeds of $35.7 million in subscriptions (inclusive of the $27.5 million cash proceeds already received by the Company). The Company also announced that $9.6 million of debt and interest expenses assumed by the Company pursuant to the legal settlement of a matter relating to former entity TGS National Holdings, LLC and its subsidiaries and the acquisition of BHILH and its suibsidiaries which were exchanged into Warrant Notes with a slightly modified redemption right (subject to an unrelated contingency).
On July 31, 2020, the Company announced a second upsizing to the previously announced Debt Financing and closed on $33.3 million of new subscription receipts, receiving $27.8 million in cash proceeds. Included in the $33.3 million was $12.3 million of subscription receipts contingent upon the closing of the PAMS acquisition. Due to founder and other insider participation, a special committee of the board of directors, comprised entirely of independent members, was formed to set, review, negotiate and approve of the terms of the Debt Financing. ATB Capital Markets (formerly, AltaCorp Capital Inc.) was engaged by the special committee of the board of directors to provide its opinion as to the fairness, from a financial perspective, of the terms of the upsizings to the Debt Financing.
On December 1, 2020, certain participants in the Debt Financing elected to exchange their Warrant Notes or OID Notes for an equal principal amount of 10% Senior Secured Notes due January 15, 2023, which commenced trading on the CSE under the trading symbol “JUSH.DB.U”. Holders of an aggregate principal amount of $76.4 million in Warrant Notes and OID Notes elected to participate in such exchange. Holders of an aggregate principal amount of $7.0 million in Warrant Notes and OID Notes elected to retain their Warrant Notes or OID Notes, as applicable, which were amended and restated in connection with the listing of the 10% Senior Secured Notes due January 15, 2023. On December 31, 2020, an aggregate of approximately $83.3 million of listed and unlisted notes remain outstanding.
On October 20, 2021, the Company entered into definitive documentation in respect of a $100 million Senior Secured Credit Facility (the Acquisition Facility) with Roxbury, LP acting as agent to SunStream Bancorp Inc. (Sunstream), a joint venture sponsored by Sundial Growers Inc. (NASDAQ:SNDL). As of August 4, 2022, Jushi had drawn down $65.0 million from the Acquisition Facility to fund the cash portion of the completed acquisitions of Nature’s Remedy, Apothecarium and NuLeaf. Additionally, the Company will consider borrowing future amounts under the Acquisition Facility for potential strategic expansion opportunities in both its core and developing markets. After being drawn, loans issued under the Acquisition Facility will bear an interest rate of 9.5% per annum, payable quarterly, and will mature five years from the closing date. The Company will be able to make additional draws under the facility for an 18-month period, and will have a two-year interest-only period before partial amortization begins on a quarterly basis. The Company also may increase the total commitment of the Acquisition Facility by an aggregate amount of up to $25 million, subject to certain conditions. The Acquisition Facility is secured by a first lien over certain Company assets and on a pari passu basis with current senior indebtedness on existing assets that are collateralized under the Company’s current senior debt.
For additional information and information about our other debt instruments, refer to Note 11 - Debt in the audited consolidated financial statements and Note 9 - Debt in the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates, and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates and revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the audited consolidated financial statements.
Significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the consolidated financial statements are described below.
Estimated Useful Lives and Depreciation of Property and Equipment and Intangible Assets
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment and intangible assets are dependent upon estimates of useful lives, which are determined through the exercise of judgment. The assessment of any impairment of these assets is dependent upon estimates of recoverable amounts that take into account factors such as economic and market conditions and the useful lives of assets. Our licenses have indefinite lives and are not amortized. Absent such licenses, we cannot continue conducting business in the associated jurisdiction and as such, there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which these assets are expected to generate future cash inflows to us.
Accounting for Acquisitions and Business Combinations
In determining the fair value of all identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired, the most significant estimates relate to contingent consideration and intangible assets. Management exercises judgement in estimating the probability and timing of when earn-outs are expected to be achieved, which is used as the basis for estimating fair value. For any intangible asset identified, depending on the type of intangible asset and the complexity of determining its fair value, management with the assistance of an independent valuation expert, may estimate the fair value, using appropriate valuation techniques, which are generally based on a forecast of the total expected future net cash flows.
Cannabis licenses are the primary intangible asset acquired in business combinations as they provide us the ability to operate in each market. We utilize the expected future net cash flows of the acquired business in calculating the fair value of these intangible assets. The key assumptions used in these cash flow projections include discount rates and terminal growth rates. Of the key assumptions used, the impact of the estimated fair value of the intangible assets have the greatest sensitivity to the estimated discount rate used in the valuation. Management selected discount rates are primarily dependent upon the markets in which each of the acquisitions operates. The terminal growth rate represents the rate at which these businesses will continue to grow in perpetuity. Other significant assumptions include estimated revenue, gross profit, operating expenses and anticipated capital expenditures which are based upon the business’ historical operations along with management projections.
The evaluations are linked closely to the assumptions made by management regarding the future performance of these assets and any changes in the discount rate applied.
The net realizable value of inventories represents the estimated selling price for inventories in the ordinary course of business, less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale. The determination of net realizable value requires significant judgment, including consideration of factors such as shrinkage, the aging of and future demand for inventory, expected selling price and the contractual arrangements with customers. Reserves for excess and obsolete inventory are based upon quantities on hand, projected volumes from demand forecasts and net realizable value. The estimates are judgmental in nature and are made at a point in time, using available information, expected business plans and expected market conditions. As a result, the actual amount received on sale could differ from the estimated value of inventory. Periodic reviews are performed on the inventory balance. The impact of changes in inventory reserves is reflected in cost of goods sold.
Goodwill and Indefinite Lived Intangibles Impairment
Goodwill and indefinite lived intangibles are tested for impairment annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset has been impaired. In order to determine if the value of goodwill or indefinite lived intangible assets may have been impaired, we perform a qualitative assessment to determine if it is more-likely-than-not that the reporting unit’s carrying value is less than the fair value, indicating the potential for impairment, and therefore requiring a quantitative assessment. If we determine that a quantitative impairment test is required, for testing of goodwill, we typically use a combination of an income approach, i.e., a discounted cash flow calculation, and a market approach, i.e., using a market multiple method, to determine the fair value of each reporting unit, and then compare the fair value to its carrying amount to determine the amount of impairment, if any. For the testing of indefinite-lived intangibles, we typically utilize an income approach, i.e., the excess earnings approach. When applying these valuation techniques, we rely on a number of factors, including historical results, business plans, forecasts and market data. Changes in the conditions for these judgments and estimates can significantly affect the assessed value of goodwill and indefinite lived intangible assets.
Share-based Payment Arrangements
We account for stock based compensation expense in accordance with ASC 718 Compensation – Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of stock-based compensation expense based on estimated fair values, for all stock-based payment awards made to employees. We use the Black-Scholes pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and warrants granted to employees and directors under share-based payment arrangements, where appropriate. In estimating fair value, management is required to make certain assumptions and estimates such as the expected life of the awards, volatility of share price, risk free rates, and future dividend yields at the initial grant date. Changes in assumptions used to estimate fair value could result in materially different results.
ASC 842 Leases (ASC 842) requires lessees to recognize Right of Use (ROU) assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term, using a discount rate equivalent to our incremental borrowing rate for a term similar to the estimated duration of the lease. ASC 842 requires lessees to discount lease payments using the rate implicit in the lease if that rate is readily available. If that rate cannot be readily determined, the lessee is required to use its incremental borrowing rate. Accordingly, we generally use our incremental borrowing rate when initially recording leases. We determine the incremental borrowing rate as the interest rate we would pay to borrow over a similar term the funds necessary to obtain an asset of a similar value to the right-of-use asset in a similar economic environment. In addition, ASC 842 requires lessees to estimate the lease term. In determining the period which we have the right to use an underlying asset, management considers the non-cancellable period along with all facts and circumstances that create an economic incentive to exercise an extension option, or not to exercise a termination option.
Current tax assets and/or liabilities comprise those claims from, or obligations to, fiscal authorities relating to the current or prior reporting periods that are unpaid at the reporting date. Current tax is payable on taxable profit, which differs from profit or loss in the financial statements. Calculation of current tax is based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of the differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities by using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that we believe that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, all available positive and negative evidence are considered, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. If it is determined that we would be able to realize deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance is recorded, which would reduce the provision for income taxes
Uncertain tax positions are recorded in accordance with ASC 740 Income Taxes on the basis of a two-step process in which (1) we determine whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, we recognize the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority.
As we operate in the legal cannabis industry, we are subject to the limits of Section 280E of the Code for U.S. federal income tax purposes as well as state income tax purposes for all states except for California and Colorado. Under Section 280E of the Code, we are only allowed to deduct expenses directly related to the cost of goods sold. This results in permanent differences between ordinary and necessary business expenses deemed non-allowable under Section 280E of the Code.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
For information about our recently adopted accounting standards and recently issued accounting standards not yet adopted, refer to Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the audited consolidated financial statements.
Changes in Accountants
On June 2, 2021, we replaced MNP LLP as our independent accountants.
The reports of MNP LLP on our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, which were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, did not contain any adverse opinion or disclaimer of opinion, nor were such reports qualified or modified as to uncertainty, audit scope, or accounting principles. MNP LLP conducted their audits in accordance with Canadian generally accepted auditing standards.
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 and the subsequent interim period through June 2, 2021, MNP LLP did not have any disagreement with us on any matter of accounting principles or practices, financial statement disclosure or auditing scope or procedure, which disagreement, if not resolved to the satisfaction of MNP LLP would have caused it to make reference to the subject matter of the disagreement in connection with its report on our consolidated financial statements.
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 and the subsequent interim period through June 2, 2021, there were no “reportable events” as such term is defined in Item 304(a)(1)(v) of Regulation S-K.
We provided a copy of this disclosure to MNP LLP and requested that they furnish us a letter addressed to the SEC stating whether they agree with the above statements. Their letter to the SEC will be attached as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
On June 2, 2021, we engaged Marcum LLP as our independent registered public accounting firm. Marcum LLP conducted the audits of the Company’s financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, which were prepared in accordance with US GAAP and appear in this prospectus.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of business. Some potential market risks are discussed below:
Strategic and operational risks arise if we fail to carry out business operations and/or raise sufficient equity and/or debt financing. These strategic opportunities or threats arise from a range of factors that might include changing economic and political circumstances and regulatory approvals and competitor actions. The risk is mitigated by consideration of other potential development opportunities and challenges which management may undertake.
Our operating results and financial position are reported in U.S. dollars. Some of our financial transactions are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. The results of operations are subject to currency transaction risks.
We have no hedging agreements in place with respect to foreign exchange rates. We have not entered into any agreements or purchased any instruments to hedge possible currency risks at this time.
Management does not believe that the Company currently has credit risk related to its operations, as the Company’s revenue is generated primarily through cash transactions. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to our cash and cash equivalents are limited primarily to amounts held with financial institutions. Credit risk related to operations could increase as the Company continues to expand wholesale operations.
Price risk is the risk of variability in the fair value due to movements in equity or market prices. Our investments, primarily mutual funds, are susceptible to price risk arising from uncertainties about their future outlook, future values and the impact of market conditions.
Interest Rate Risk
Interest rate risk is the risk that the fair value or the future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate as a result of changes in market interest rates. Cash equivalents bear interest at market rates. The majority of our financial debts have fixed rates of interest and therefore our exposure is limited.
If our costs become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Asset Forfeiture risk
Because the cannabis industry remains illegal under U.S. federal law, any property owned by participants in the cannabis industry which are either used in the course of conducting such business, or are the proceeds of such business, could be subject to seizure by law enforcement and subsequent civil asset forfeiture. Even if the owner of the property were never charged with a crime, the property in question could still be seized and subject to an administrative proceeding by which, with minimal due process, it could be subject to forfeiture.
Notwithstanding that a majority of states have legalized medical marijuana, there has been no change in U.S. federal banking laws related to the deposit and holding of funds derived from activities related to the marijuana industry. Given that U.S. federal law provides that the production and possession of cannabis is illegal, there is a strong argument that banks cannot accept for deposit funds from businesses involved with the marijuana industry. Consequently, businesses involved in the marijuana industry often have difficulty accessing the U.S. banking system and traditional financing sources. The inability to open bank accounts with certain institutions may make it difficult to operate the businesses of Jushi, its subsidiaries and investee companies, and leaves their cash holdings vulnerable. We have banking relationships in all jurisdictions in which we operate.
We are a vertically integrated, multi-state cannabis operator engaged in retail, distribution, cultivation, and processing operations in both medical and adult-use markets. We are focused on building a diverse portfolio of cannabis assets through opportunistic investments and pursuing application opportunities in attractive limited license markets. We have targeted assets in highly populated, limited license medical markets that are on a trajectory toward adult-use legalization, including Pennsylvania and Ohio, markets that are in the process of transitioning to adult-use, namely Virginia, and limited license, fast-growing, large adult-use markets, such as Illinois, Nevada and Massachusetts, and certain municipalities of California.
Our business strategy is to find market opportunities with favorable relevant local competitive and regulatory landscapes, supply/demand dynamics, and growth potential. We evaluate the economic viability of each opportunity before making capital allocation decisions and may decide to participate in one or more facets of the supply chain based on the dynamics of each individual market. In certain markets, we may seek to apply a capital-light or retail-focused strategy, especially where cultivation may become further commoditized in future years. In limited license medical markets (e.g., Pennsylvania), or markets in the process of transitioning to adult-use (e.g., Virginia), we may seek to expand our cultivation assets despite the high level of capital investment required, given the significant market opportunity. Also, in other markets, we may seek a more balanced capital allocation approach where we may acquire a grower-processor and/or additional retail dispensaries in a market where we currently operate, such as Illinois, Ohio, California, Massachusetts, and Nevada. Lastly, in limited license adult-use cannabis markets that are expanding, we may allocate significant capital to acquire a vertically integrated operator. By establishing a strong platform and retail-brand recognition in markets that have the greatest growth potential, we expect to be well-positioned for future growth in adult-use cannabis once it is further legalized.
We remain intensely focused on expanding our retail presence in current markets while pursuing acquisition opportunities across the supply chain in limited license markets that complement our existing portfolio. Our financial capacity allows us to operate from a position of strength and it is expected that such financial capacity will help us emerge as an even stronger player in this industry. We plan to implement our growth strategy by expanding our presence in current markets, increasing our offering of branded product lines, targeting acquisition opportunities across the supply chain, and applying for de novo licenses.
We operate eighteen medical cannabis dispensaries, under our BEYOND/HELLO™ brand, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
We operate four adult-use (with two co-located medical) cannabis dispensaries, under our BEYOND/HELLO™ brand, in the State of Illinois. Additionally, our partner was awarded a conditional retail dispensary license in Illinois via the state’s lottery process.
We operate two medical cannabis dispensaries, under our BEYOND/HELLO™ brand, in the Commonwealth of Virginia. We are permitted to open four additional dispensaries in the Commonwealth of Virginia, subject to local zoning and state regulatory approvals.
We operate two adult-use cannabis dispensaries, under our Nature’s Remedy™ brand, in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (with one co-located medical).
We operate four adult-use and medical retail dispensaries in Nevada in the Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe areas.
In Ohio, our 100% owned subsidiary, Campbell Hill Ventures, was awarded a provisional medical marijuana dispensary license in the medical marijuana retail lottery and is awaiting certification of licenses by the Ohio Board of Pharmacy.
We operate three medical and adult-use cannabis dispensaries, under our BEYOND/HELLO™ brand, in the State of California located in the City of Santa Barbara, the City of Palm Springs and the City of Grover Beach. Our Palm Springs dispensary’s operations, which were voluntarily suspended while the store underwent a significant renovation, resumed operations in the third quarter of 2022.
We operate three age-gated online platforms through www.beyond-hello.com, www.naturesremedyma.com, and www.nuleafnv.com for patients and customers (the Online Platforms). The Online Platforms are not intended to be used for advertising activities but are intended to be used as a virtual tool, allowing patients and customers to understand the cannabis products that we offer and view real-time pricing and product availability at our dispensaries. The Online Platforms do not provide any information or any other functionalities with respect to any third-party dispensaries.
No cannabis purchase and sale transactions occur on the Online Platforms. A patient or customer may reserve products using the Online Platforms, but the patient or customer must be physically present at the point-of-sale to consummate the purchase and sale of products. This requirement allows us and dispensary staff to ensure that the standard operating procedures (including our compliance program(s)) are applied to all patients and customers in connection with the purchase and sale of products.
In jurisdictions where medical cannabis is legal, upon arrival of the patient at the applicable dispensary, or at the point of delivery (where permissible), dispensary staff must verify the patient’s identity and accreditation (such as a state-issued medical cannabis card) and confirm the patient’s allotment to ensure the user is not exceeding the state’s allotment limits. Once the foregoing is verified, the patient may pay for the product(s) to complete the purchase. If the patient does not have valid identification and accreditation, the patient will not be able to purchase medical cannabis at our applicable dispensary, or at the point of delivery (where permissible), irrespective of any reservation(s) made on one of our Online Platforms.
In jurisdictions where recreational cannabis is legal, upon arrival of the customer at the applicable dispensary, or at the point of delivery (where permissible), dispensary staff must verify that the customer is at least 21 years of age by verifying the customer’s government-issued identification. Once the identification is verified, the customer may pay for the product(s) to complete the transaction. If the customer does not have valid identification, the customer will not be able to purchase recreational cannabis at our applicable dispensary, or at the point of delivery (where permissible), irrespective of any reservation(s) made on one of our Online Platforms.
As of May 3, 2022, we no longer sell our “Nira” branded products through our CBD e-commerce platform (www.niracbd.com).
Cultivation & Production
We are currently engaged in cannabis cultivation and production operations in Pennsylvania, at our grower-processor facility operated by PAMS. On November 23, 2020, we announced our intention to launch a phased expansion of the PAMS facility to better serve the growing medical cannabis market in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The first phase of the expansion, which was completed in the second quarter of 2022, expanded the facility from 81,000 sq. ft. to 123,000 sq. ft., increased total canopy from approximately 16,000 sq. ft. to approximately 35,000 sq. ft., and increased annual biomass capacity from about 8,000 lbs. to approximately 22,000 lbs. Phase two of the expansion, which would commence pending favorable regulatory developments in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, such as adult-use legislation, is expected to increase the PAMS facility from 123,000 sq. ft. to 210,000 sq. ft., increase total canopy from 35,000 sq. ft. to approximately 107,000 sq. ft., and increase annual biomass capacity from about 22,000 lbs. to approximately 60,000 lbs. In addition to these two contemplated phases of buildout, PAMS continues to assess and develop further expansion opportunities at the PAMS facility to meet the needs of patients and wholesale market demand, now and in the future.
We are also engaged in cannabis cultivation and processing in Virginia. Through our subsidiary Dalitso, we operate the Manassas Facility, which allows us to cultivate, process, dispense and deliver medical cannabis to registered patients in Virginia. The Manassas Facility is approximately 93,000 sq. ft.
In May 2021, we began phase one of the expansion of the existing Manassas Facility, which added approximately 63,000 sq. ft. of cultivation, manufacturing and processing capacity and was completed in the second quarter of 2022. At full capacity, the facility will have approximately 19,000 sq. ft. of canopy and an annual biomass production capacity of approximately 12,000 lbs. that should begin to come to market by the third quarter 2022. We are also in the design phase of constructing a second connected on-site building that would also be built in two phases (phase two and phase three), pending regulatory developments. Phase two of the second building is expected to increase the facility from 93,000 sq. ft. to 195,000 sq. ft., increase total canopy from about 19,000 sq. ft. to approximately 54,000 sq. ft., and increase annual biomass production from about 12,000 lbs. to approximately 35,000 lbs. We anticipate commencing phase two of the expansion when there is clear line of sight into the timing of the state’s regulatory developments surrounding the beginning of an adult-use sales program. Phase three would add another approximately 68,000 sq. ft. to the facility, 69,000 sq. ft. of canopy, and 45,000 lbs. of annual biomass production for a total of approximately 263,000 sq. ft., 123,000 sq. ft. of canopy, and 80,000 lbs. of annual biomass capacity. Dalitso’s planned buildout of their facility, enables Dalitso to efficiently produce a consistent supply of medical cannabis products as patient access improves and the medical cannabis program continues to mature and expand.
In September 2021, we closed on our acquisition of Nature’s Remedy. Nature’s Remedy currently operates a 50,000 sq. ft. cultivation and production facility in Lakeville, Massachusetts with high-quality, indoor flower canopy and state-of-the-art extraction and manufacturing capabilities (the Lakeville Facility). The Lakeville Facility recently completed an expansion to approximately 33,000 sq. ft. of canopy during the second half of 2021. As part of the expansion, Nature’s Remedy expects to increase annual biomass production to approximately 21,000 lbs. The Lakeville Facility could potentially accommodate an additional 18,000 to 20,000 sq. ft. of flower canopy through the expansion into approximately 26,000 sq. ft. of adjacent space in the existing building. Nature’s Remedy is also evaluating further expansion opportunities in the existing Lakeville industrial complex and/or land owned by Nature’s Remedy in Grafton, Massachusetts. These expansions are subject to business evaluations and needs, and receipt of applicable regulatory approvals.
Further, in Nevada, through our subsidiary FBS NV, we engage in cultivation and production operations in North Las Vegas, Nevada, and are permitted to purchase and/or sell cannabis and cannabis products to other authorized licensees on a wholesale basis. Pursuant to the hemp handler license, FBS NV is also permitted to handle raw industrial hemp, purchase hemp-derived constituents (such as hemp-derived CBD) from licensed hemp operators, and to infuse or manufacture products containing hemp-derived constituents. FBS NV operates a 7,200 sq. ft. facility featuring a state-of-the-art, indoor, double-stacked cultivation that yields approximately 2,800 lbs. of high-quality dry flower per year. FBS NV plans to create a single production space for a total of approximately 17,400 sq. ft., which is expected to add approximately 5,300 sq. ft. of canopy to the facility’s cultivation capacity.
On April 6, 2022, we expanded our capabilities in Nevada by acquiring NuLeaf, a Nevada-based vertically integrated business operating a 27,000 sq. ft. cultivation facility in Sparks, Nevada, and a 13,000 sq. ft. processing facility in Reno. NuLeaf’s cultivation operations span 27,000 sq. ft. over two floors in a 15,000 sq. ft. building in Sparks, Nevada. The building is equipped with ten single-stacked flower rooms, with a flower canopy encompassing approximately 6,800 sq. ft., and a custom automation system for controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 enrichment. NuLeaf also operates a separate 13,000 sq. ft. processing facility in Reno, Nevada. The facility currently has hydrocarbon extraction capabilities and can hold an additional extraction unit within the existing space.
In August 2021, we completed the acquisition of FBS OH, a licensed medical marijuana processor in Ohio. FBS OH operates an 8,000 sq. ft. state-of-the-art processing facility located in Columbus, Ohio. Additionally, we have acquired Ohio Green Grow LLC and OhiGrow located in Toledo, Ohio. OhiGrow holds a Level II cultivation license that allows for an initial 3,000 sq. ft. of cultivation area. OhiGrow currently operates approximately 1,900 sq. ft. of canopy in a free-standing building. There is additional available vacant space on the property, which can be further developed. We intend to apply for the necessary approvals to expand the OhiGrow facility’s cultivation area to the maximum currently permitted under the Level II cultivation license.
Product Selection and Offerings
With respect to our cannabis business, senior leaders from the business development, operations, finance, marketing, and sales teams negotiate with potential brand vendors across all product categories including flower, vape pens, oils, extracts, edibles and pre-rolls to make future product selection decisions. Leveraging managements’ experience, we analyze market dynamics, product quality, profit and loss, impact and consumer demand to carry out our long-term strategy in each market. With high-impact retail locations in key markets, we expect to be a desirable partner for nationally scaling brands and/or in-house products.
In Pennsylvania, Virginia, Massachusetts, and Nevada, our dispensaries sell our own in-house brands and a variety of third-party cannabis products, including, cannabis dry flower, vaporizer forms of cannabis, edibles (where permissible), cannabis oil in capsule, tinctures, cannabis in topical products, and other cannabis products. In Illinois and California, our dispensaries sell a variety of third-party cannabis products, including cannabis dry flower, vaporizer forms of cannabis, cannabis oil in capsule, tinctures, cannabis in topical products, cannabis edible products and other cannabis products. In Ohio, we wholesale a series of brands and products in the state, which are currently available for purchase at partner dispensaries across Ohio.
In connection with such cultivation and processing, we intend to utilize intellectual property, including trademarks, trade secrets, extraction techniques, concentrates and other proprietary information related to our cannabis brands within the states such cannabis brands are marketed and sold. We own the domains jushico.com, beyond-hello.com, thebankflower.com, findthelab.com, thetasteology.com, niraplus.com, secheflower.com, niracbd.com, and several related domains. We have received state approval to produce and market these products under such brands where applicable. We will pursue trademark registration of material brands with the U.S. Patent and Trade Office promptly following a change in the U.S. Patent and Trade Office's policy position towards cannabis products, which currently does not accept such registrations, or a change in related laws. We rely on non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements to protect our intellectual property rights. These brands and formulations include:
Premium Flower: The Bank
Jushi relaunched its acquired, award-winning Colorado brand, The Bank, known for its superior plant genetics and next-level cultivation. The Bank offers pre-packaged flower, infused blunts and pre-rolls comprised of three tiered lines: Gold Standard, Cache and Vault each offering varying degrees of quality, availability and price. Currently, The Bank is available at our BEYOND/HELLO™ locations in Pennsylvania and Virginia, our NuLeaf and Nature’s Remedy branded dispensaries in Nevada and Massachusetts, respectively, and other licensed retailers across these markets.
Vapes & Concentrates: The Lab
We relaunched another of our acquired, award-winning Colorado brands, The Lab, renowned for high-quality, precision vape products, and concentrates, including the pioneering of live resin. The Lab offers a wide selection of vape cartridges, disposables and concentrates. The Lab products are available at dispensaries across Pennsylvania, Virginia, Massachusetts, Nevada, and Ohio, including our BEYOND/HELLO™ locations in Pennsylvania and Virginia, our NuLeaf stores in Nevada, and our Nature’s Remedy locations in Massachusetts.
Within The Lab brand family, we launched our first line of solventless live resin extracts, the new top-shelf product line, produced purely from premium flower and extracted simply with ice and water, includes a 0.5g vape extract cartridge available now and 1g jarred concentrates coming soon for purchase exclusively at BEYOND/HELLO™ store locations in Pennsylvania under the name, The Lab™ Solventless Live RSN. It is also expected to launch at our Nature’s Remedy locations in Massachusetts, our NuLeaf stores in Nevada, and our BEYOND/HELLO™ stores in Virginia, pending regulatory approval.
Also, within The Lab brand family, we debuted our first line of concentrates made using hydrocarbon extraction. The Lab™ Live Resin is the second of several single-source concentrate product lines to be launched. Initially, we will exclusively carry The Lab™ Live Resin 500mg full-spectrum 0.5 gram 510 cartridges at BEYOND/HELLO™ retail locations in Pennsylvania. We plan to roll out our hydrocarbon-extracted line at partner dispensaries across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the coming months, as well as in additional states such as Massachusetts, Virginia and Nevada. We also plan to launch a 300mg rechargeable, all-in-one 0.3g vape and a variety of 1 gram jarred cured concentrates in the coming months, pending regulatory approval.
Jushi launched Tasteology, an edible brand offering premium, real fruit, cannabis-infused gummies and chewable tablets. Tasteology is the culmination of extensive consumer research into both the taste and effect preferences of people in Jushi’s markets where edibles can be offered. Currently, Tasteology is available at dispensaries in Nevada and Ohio as well as BEYOND/HELLO™ dispensaries in Virginia. Tasteology products are expected to launch in Massachusetts in the third quarter of 2022, pending regulatory approval.
Medicinal: Nira + Medicinals
Nira + Medicinals (Nira+) develops high-quality, THC and CBD-rich medical products aimed at improving the quality of life for all cannabis patients. Nira+ product line includes tinctures, capsules, softgels and topicals. Currently, Nira+ is available at dispensaries across Pennsylvania, including our BEYOND/HELLO™ locations in Pennsylvania, and Nature’s Remedy retail locations and partner dispensaries in Massachusetts. All our CBD products are derived from hemp containing no more than 0.3 percent THC.
Fine Grind (Shake), Fine Flower (Popcorn) and Singles (Pre-Rolls): Sèchè
Sèchè is a new category in cannabis that redefines the perception of value products like shake and popcorn. Sèchè offers products like Fine Grind (Shake), Fine Flower (Popcorn) and Singles (Pre-Rolls). Currently, Sèchè is available at dispensaries across Virginia, Nevada, Ohio, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, including at the Company’s BEYOND/HELLO™ locations in Virginia and Pennsylvania, our NuLeaf stores in Nevada, as well as Nature’s Remedy stores in Massachusetts.
As of May 3, 2022, we no longer sell “Nira” branded CBD products through our online store (www.niracbd.com).
In addition to branded and manufactured finished products, we plan to sell bulk refined cannabinoids and terpenes to vendors for use in their own finished products, as our production capacity increases in certain markets. The full scale and allocation of production utilization will depend upon the scale of our owned and managed retail footprint in addition to the production capacity of our cultivation and production facilities.
Branding and Marketing
We continue the rollout of our flagship retail brand BEYOND/HELLO™ across our key operating markets. After the launch of our online pre-ordering platform, BEYOND/HELLO™ has evolved into a fully integrated digital to brick-and-mortar experience, providing customers real-time access to pricing and product availability. All of our current retail locations operate under the BEYOND/HELLO™ brand except in Massachusetts and Nevada. In Massachusetts our retail locations operate under the Nature’s Remedy brand, and in Nevada, we operate three retail locations under the NuLeaf brand and one under the Apothecarium brand. We are planning for our future retail locations in Virginia, California, and other states to operate under the BEYOND/HELLO™ brand as well.
We operate a state-by-state opt-in loyalty program, “The Hello Club,” that rewards patients and customers with points and other exclusive offers based on their past purchases. We leverage SMS and email lists to promote specific products.
We provide retail partners with approved merchandise, and other display materials to support sales. We create product imagery, video and descriptions which are included across online dispensary menus where our products are sold.
We take advantage of various directory platforms for cannabis businesses to help prospective patients and customers find our respective retail locations. We also run out-of-home marketing campaigns in approved markets and locations for our retail dispensaries.
Sales and Distribution
With respect to cannabis retail locations, we target highly visible locations adjacent or near heavily trafficked roads. For cultivation, production and other forms of industrial activity, we target locations with immediate capabilities as well as future expansion potential. We use an internal team for the selection of real estate, as well as a broad network of real estate brokers. We make the determination to purchase or lease our underlying real estate on a case-by-case basis.
We plan to expand our network of cannabis retail locations in select markets. We have developed key indicators to identify attractive sites based on existing competition, population, real estate, parking, traffic and regulatory market attractiveness. We intend to educate patients and consumers about our product offerings in a welcoming environment through one-on-one interactions with staff.
Principal Markets & Competition
We compete against other retail and vertical licensees across the various state markets that we operate in. In certain markets, such as California, many of our competitors are small local dispensaries; however, we expect to compete against both large Multi-State Operators (MSO), as well as Canadian licensed producers, if and when cannabis is federally legal in the U.S. A "Multi-State Operator" is a colloquial term used to describe a company that engages in the cultivation, production and/or sale of cannabis and cannabis products in more than one state in accordance with applicable state and local laws, rules and regulations. In addition, we expect to compete against both third party and direct delivery services. We seek to address our competitive risk in these markets by picking strategic locations, with defensible buffers naturally built in through local regulations and local dispensaries laws.
With respect to cultivation and production, we compete with both MSO's and local operators in the states in which we operate. In Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Massachusetts, and Nevada, we compete with larger MSO's that may have access to public markets, more experienced management teams, or are further along in terms of reaching scale. We are positioning ourselves to minimize all of the above risks through accretive acquisitions, superior execution, and thoughtful location of retail and manufacturing sites.
Business in Europe
We hold a 51% interest in Jushi Europe. Jushi Europe’s wholly owned Portuguese subsidiary, JPTREH Unipessoal Limitada, a business entity organized under the laws of Portugal (Jushi Portugal), submitted an application to Portugal’s National Authority for Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED) for import, cultivation and export of medical cannabis. Jushi Portugal was granted a pre-license on November 9, 2020. Jushi Portugal acquired 32 acres of land to construct a greenhouse cultivation facility in southern Portugal. The build-out of the greenhouse cultivation facility commenced, but was subsequently halted.
On February 22, 2022, Jushi Europe filed a notice of over-indebtedness with the Swiss courts. Then on March 14, 2022, the auditor for Jushi Europe also filed a notice of over-indebtedness with the Swiss courts. Both notices are pending with the Swiss courts. As a result of the impending bankruptcy of Jushi Europe, we determined that the assets of Jushi Europe were impaired and recognized an impairment loss of $4.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, which is included in operating expenses in the audited consolidated statements of operation and comprehensive income (loss).
Neither Jushi Europe nor Jushi Portugal operates nor plans to operate in any emerging markets (as defined by OSC Staff Notice 51-720 – Issuer Guide for Companies Operating in Emerging Markets).
The organizational chart of Jushi and our material subsidiaries, including the percentage of voting securities of each material subsidiary held by us, either directly or indirectly, and their respective jurisdictions of incorporation, continuance, formation or organization as at the date of this prospectus, is set forth below. Unless otherwise noted in the box containing the name of the applicable subsidiary, the parent of such subsidiary owns 100% of the outstanding securities of such subsidiary.
Below is a discussion of the federal and state-level U.S. regulatory regimes in those jurisdictions where we are currently directly involved, through our subsidiaries, in the cannabis industry.
Federal Regulation of Cannabis in the U.S.
Under U.S. federal law, marijuana is classified as a Schedule I drug. The CSA has five different tiers or schedules. A Schedule I drug means the Drug Enforcement Agency considers it to have a high potential for abuse, no accepted medical treatment, and lack of accepted safety for the use of it even under medical supervision. Other Schedule I drugs include heroin, LSD and ecstasy. In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the FDA) approved Epidiolex, a purified form of CBD derived from the marijuana plant and used to treat two rare, intractable forms of epilepsy. We believe marijuana’s categorization as a Schedule I drug is thus not reflective of the medicinal properties of marijuana or the public perception thereof, and numerous studies show cannabis is not able to be abused in the same way as other Schedule I drugs, has medicinal properties, and can be safely administered. In this respect, 37 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands have passed laws authorizing comprehensive, publicly available medical marijuana programs, and 19 of those states and the District of Columbia have passed laws legalizing marijuana for adult-use.
In an effort to address incongruities between marijuana prohibition under the CSA and legalization under various state laws, the federal government issued guidance to law enforcement agencies and financial institutions during the Presidency of Barack Obama through Department of Justice (DOJ) memoranda. The most recent such memorandum is a DOJ memorandum issued by Deputy Attorney General James Cole in 2013 (the Cole Memo). The Cole Memo provided guidance to federal enforcement agencies as to how they should prioritize civil enforcement, criminal investigations and prosecutions regarding marijuana in all states. The Cole Memo shielded individuals and businesses participating in state-legal marijuana operations from prosecution under federal drug laws, excepting marijuana-related conduct that fell into one of the following enumerated prosecution priorities:
|1.||Preventing the distribution of marijuana to minors;|
|2.||Preventing revenue from the sale of marijuana from going to criminal enterprises, gangs and cartels;|
|3.||Preventing the diversion of marijuana from states where it is legal under state law in some form to other states;|
|4.||Preventing the state-authorized marijuana activity from being used as a cover or pretext for the trafficking of other illegal drugs or other illegal activity;|
|5.||Preventing the violence and the use of firearms in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana;|
|6.||Preventing the drugged driving and the exacerbation of other adverse public health consequences associated with marijuana use;|
|7.||Preventing the growing of marijuana on public lands and the attendant public safety and environmental dangers posed by marijuana production on public lands; and|
|8.||Preventing marijuana possession or use on federal property.|
On January 4, 2018, then U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions issued the Sessions Memo, which rescinded the Cole Memo. Rather than provide nationwide guidance respecting marijuana-related crimes in jurisdictions where certain marijuana activity was legal under state law, the Sessions Memo instructs that “[i]n deciding which marijuana activities to prosecute. With the DOJ’s finite resources, prosecutors should follow the well-established principles that govern all federal prosecutions.” Namely, these include the seriousness of the offense, history of criminal activity, deterrent effect of prosecution, the interests of victims, and other principles. Former U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions resigned in November 2018 and was replaced by Matthew Whitaker as interim Attorney General. In February 2019, William Barr was sworn in as Attorney General. Mr. Barr resigned as Attorney General on December 23, 2020 and Merrick Garland was sworn in as Attorney General in March 2021. Attorney General Merrick Garland’s public comments to date suggest that the prosecution priorities outlined in the Cole Memo shape the Department of Justice’s prosecutorial priorities under his tenure.
Despite rescission of the Cole Memo, we remain mindful of the common-sense prosecution priorities set forth therein and have not modified policies or procedures intended to support its underlying safety-focused intent. To this end, we and our operating subsidiaries adhere to industry best practices for operations, mandate strict compliance with applicable state and local laws, rules, regulations, ordinances, guidance and like authority, implement procedures designed to ensure operations do not exceed what is authorized under applicable licenses, perform stringent diligence on third-parties with whom we do business, perform background checks on employees, and maintain state-of-the-art seed-to-sale inventory tracking and other security infrastructure. Regular reviews of the foregoing and related operations, premises, documentation and the like are performed to ensure compliance with our safety, security and compliance standards.
Due to the CSA categorization of marijuana as a Schedule I drug, U.S. federal law makes it illegal for financial institutions that depend on the Federal Reserve’s money transfer system to take any proceeds from marijuana sales as deposits. Banks and other financial institutions could be prosecuted and possibly convicted of money laundering for providing services to cannabis businesses under the Bank Secrecy Act. Under U.S. federal law, banks or other financial institutions that provide a cannabis business with a checking account, debit or credit card, small business loan, or any other service could be found guilty of money laundering or conspiracy.
While there has been no change in U.S. federal banking laws to account for the trend towards legalizing medical and adult-use marijuana by U.S. states, FinCEN has issued guidance in 2014 to prosecutors handling money laundering and other financial crimes advising them not to focus enforcement efforts on banks and other financial institutions servicing marijuana-related businesses so long as such businesses are legally operating under state law and not engaging in conduct within the scope of a Cole Memo prosecution priority (such as keeping marijuana away from minors and out of the hands of organized crime). The 2014 FinCEN guidance also clarifies how financial institutions can provide services to marijuana-related businesses consistent with their Bank Secrecy Act obligations, including thorough customer due diligence, but makes it clear that they are doing so at their own risk. The customer due diligence steps include:
|1.||Verifying with the appropriate state authorities whether the business is duly licensed and registered;|
|2.||Reviewing the license application (and related documentation) submitted by the business for obtaining a state license to operate its marijuana-related business;|
|3.||Requesting from state licensing and enforcement authorities available information about the business and related parties;|
|4.||Developing an understanding of the normal and expected activity for the business, including the types of products to be sold and the type of customers to be served (e.g., medical versus adult-use customers);|
|5.||Ongoing monitoring of publicly available sources for adverse information about the business and related parties;|
|6.||Ongoing monitoring for suspicious activity, including for any of the red flags described in this guidance; and|
|7.||Refreshing information obtained as part of customer due diligence on a periodic basis and commensurate with the risk.|
With respect to information regarding state licensure obtained in connection with such customer due diligence, the 2014 FinCEN guidance allows financial institutions to reasonably rely on the accuracy of information provided by state licensing authorities where states make such information available.
Unlike the Cole Memo, 2014 FinCEN guidance remains effective as of the date of this prospectus. During the Trump Administration, Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin publicly voiced his intent to leave such guidance in force and effect. The current Secretary of the Treasury, Janet Yellen, has not provided any public comment regarding her positions on the 2014 FinCEN guidance, but has previously indicated that she would be in favor of legislation that would provide safe harbor to financial institutions that worked with state-legal marijuana-related businesses. Nonetheless, despite FinCEN’s guidance, most banks and other financial institutions are still unwilling to provide banking or other financial services to marijuana businesses resulting in largely cash-based operations. While the FinCEN guidance decreased some risk for banks and financial institutions that accept marijuana business, it has not increased the industry’s access to banking services because financial institutions are required to perform extensive, continuous customer diligence respecting marijuana customers and are not immune from prosecution based on transacting business with such customers. In fact, some banks that had been servicing marijuana businesses have been closing the marijuana businesses’ accounts and are now refusing to open accounts for new marijuana businesses due to cost, risk, or both.
Although the Cole Memo was rescinded and FinCEN’s guidance has not made financial services widely available to legal marijuana businesses, a key legislative safeguard for the medical cannabis industry remains in place. Specifically, certain temporary federal legislative enactments that protect the medical marijuana industry have also been in effect. For instance, certain marijuana businesses receive a measure of protection from federal prosecution by operation of a temporary appropriations measures that has been enacted into law as an amendment or “rider” to federal spending bills passed by Congress and signed by both Presidents Obama and Trump. First adopted in the Appropriations Act of 2015, Congress has since included in successive budgets a “rider” that prohibits the DOJ from expending any funds to enforce any law that interferes with a state’s implementation of its own medical marijuana laws. The rider is known as the “Rohrbacher-Farr” Amendment after its original lead sponsors (it is also sometimes referred to as the Rohrabacher-Blumenauer Amendment or the Joyce-Leahy Amendment). In 2021, President Biden proposed a budget with the Rohrbacher-Farr amendment included. The amendment was then renewed through a series of stopgap spending bills, and on March 15, 2021, the amendment was renewed through the signing of the fiscal year 2022 omnibus spending bill, effective through September 30, 2022.
Though there is no guarantee the Presidency of Joe Biden or a future administration will not change relevant federal policy, as a practical matter, the legal marijuana industry has not seen a material change in federal enforcement activities since rescission of the Cole Memo. However, it is possible existing appropriation rider protection and existing prosecutorial discretion not to enforce federal drug laws against state-legal marijuana business could change at any time.
On July 14, 2021, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) and Senators Cory Booker (D-NJ) and Ron Wyden (D-OR) released a discussion draft of their co-sponsored “Cannabis Administration and Opportunity Act” bill (the CAOA). This proposed legislation would legalize and regulate cannabis in the U.S. at the federal level. The sponsoring offices have invited the public to comment on the discussion draft through September 1, 2021. While the goals set forth in the CAOA are admirable, the discussion draft remains subject to considerable revision, and it remains unclear whether or to what extent all or portions of it may garner enough support to pass.
Finally, revenue from our marijuana operations is subject to Section 280E of the Code. Section 280E of the Code prohibits marijuana businesses from deducting ordinary and necessary business expenses, resulting in a materially higher effective federal income tax rate than businesses in other industries Therefore, businesses in the legal cannabis industry may be less profitable than they would otherwise be in a different industry.
On December 20, 2018, the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018 (the Farm Bill) became law in the U.S. Under the Farm Bill, industrial and commercial hemp is no longer to be classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the U.S. Hemp includes the plant cannabis sativa L and any part of that plant, including seeds, derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids and isomers. To qualify under the Farm Bill, hemp must contain no more than 0.3 % of delta-9-THC. The Farm Bill explicitly allows interstate commerce of hemp which will enable the transportation and shipment of hemp across state lines, thus, the Farm Bill fundamentally changed how hemp and hemp-derived products (such as those containing CBD extracted from hemp) are regulated in the U.S.
State Regulatory Environment
The following sections describe the legal and regulatory landscape in states where our subsidiaries currently operate or intend to operate in the near-term future. While we actively work to ensure all of our operations are fully compliant with applicable state and local laws, rules, regulations, licensing requirements, ordinances and other applicable governing authority, the rules and regulations as outlined below are not a comprehensive representation of all the rules that we and our subsidiaries are required to follow in each applicable state. There are significant risks associated with our business and readers are strongly encouraged to carefully review and consider all of the risks set forth and described herein.
Common State Law Requirements
Although each state has its own laws and regulations regarding the operation of cannabis businesses, certain of the laws and regulations are consistent across jurisdictions. For example, to operate legally under state laws, marijuana businesses must typically obtain a license from the state. In some states, local marijuana-specific approvals are also required. In these jurisdictions, local governments may be authorized to prohibit or otherwise impose material restrictions on cannabis operations, including by proscribing rules limiting the type(s) and/or number of license(s) allowed (such authority is in addition to ordinary and customary building, fire and land use regulatory control). In many cases, securing local approval(s) is a prerequisite to state issuance of a full or unconditional license.
License application and renewal processes are unique to each state, and as applicable, each locality. However, generally each state’s application process requires a comprehensive criminal history disclosure of key individuals (such as major shareholders, directors, officers, certain managers and other individuals to the extent they are known at the time of application (Key Individuals)), and as to the applicant entity (and often its affiliates) and such Key Individuals, marijuana licensing and compliance history, financial and personal disclosures, detailed operating plans, facility information (often including drawings and plans), security-related plans, an affirmative obligation to report changes to or deviations from information set forth in the application, and other information designed to ensure only reputable, law-abiding individuals and entities ready, willing and able to operate in compliance with applicable state laws, rules and regulations are awarded marijuana licenses.
Applicants for marijuana licenses are commonly required to submit standard operating procedures (SOPs) describing how the proposed business will secure its facility(ies), manage inventory, comply with inventory tracking requirements and other reporting obligations, effectuate safe marijuana transactions, handle waste, train employees, implement quality control measures, and perform other tasks necessary and appropriate to operate in a safe, secure, and compliant manner. SOPs submitted as part of licensing applications are typically reviewed, evaluated and ultimately approved by regulators, and must generally remain in force and effect after issuance of a license. Any material change to SOPs requires prior written regulatory approval in nearly all cases. Finally, marijuana operations are continuously subject to inspection, with or without notice, by cannabis regulators and certain authorized law enforcement agencies.
In California, State and local medical and adult-use cannabis business licenses are renewed annually. Each year, licensees are required to submit a renewal application per guidelines published by the Department of Cannabis Control (the DCC), which is the successor regulator to the Bureau of Cannabis Control. While renewals are annual, there is no limit to the number of renewals a licensee may obtain. Assuming requisite renewal fees are paid, renewal applications are submitted in a timely manner, and the establishment has not been cited for material violations, renewal applicants can anticipate approval in the ordinary course of business. However, any unexpected denials, delays or costs associated with a licensing renewal could impede planned operations and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
License and Regulations
Adult-use retailer licenses permit the sale of cannabis and cannabis products to any individual age 21 years of age or older who does not possess a physician’s recommendation. Thus, should a subsidiary be awarded a license, it will be authorized to sell cannabis and cannabis products to adults over the age of 21 subject to customer presentation of a valid government-issued photo ID. As with all state-legal marijuana programs, only cannabis grown in California can be sold in California and retail licensees may only sell cannabis products procured from a duly licensed distributor or licensed microbusiness authorized to engage in distribution. All cannabis products are subject to appropriate laboratory testing, packaging, labeling, and tracking requirements. Upon receipt, licensed retailers must confirm cannabis products have not expired, are properly packaged and bear batch numbers which correspond with tracking and laboratory analysis documentation. Cannabis and cannabis products may only be displayed for inspection and sale on the sales floor of the facility, and may only be removed from packaging for customer inspection if placed in a proper container provided by the licensee and not readily accessible without the assistance of licensee staff (who must remain with the customer throughout such inspection). Any cannabis product displayed or inspected in this manner must be destroyed following inspection or when no longer being used for display purposes and may not be sold or consumed. Retailers may only provide free cannabis products under certain, very limited circumstances and may not sell other goods, with the exception of cannabis accessories and branded merchandise.
Medicinal retailer licenses permit the sale of medicinal cannabis and cannabis products for use pursuant to the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 (CUA), found at Section 11362.5 of the California Health and Safety Code, by a medicinal cannabis patient in California who possesses a physician’s recommendation. Only certified physicians may provide medicinal marijuana recommendations. We maintain an open, transparent and collaborative relationship with the DCC and local-level cannabis regulators.
The State of California has selected Franwell Inc.’s METRC solution (METRC) as the State’s track-and-trace (T&T) system used to track commercial cannabis activity and movement along the legal supply chain. While METRC is interoperable with other third-party systems via application programming interface, only licensees have access to METRC itself.
Operating Procedure Requirements
Licensing applicants must submit SOPs describing how the operator will, among other requirements, secure the facility, manage inventory, comply with seed-to-sale requirements, dispense cannabis, and handle waste. Once an SOP is approved by the governing regulating body(ies), licensees must provide their employees with SOP training and seek written approval from governing regulating bodies before materially changing their SOPs.
Site-Visits & Inspections
The DCC and its authorized representatives have broad authority, with or without notice, to inspect licensed cannabis operations, including premises, facilities, equipment, books and records (which may be copied, and such copies retained), and cannabis products. Failure to grant DCC representatives full and immediate access to facilities, property, and premises, and to cooperate with inspections and investigations may result in disciplinary action. Laws and regulations enacted by many local jurisdictions grant local cannabis governing bodies and law enforcement agencies similar inspection authority.
Storage and Security
To ensure the safety and security of cannabis facilities and operations, the DCC requires licensees to:
|1.||Maintain a fully operational security alarm system;|
|2.||Contract for security guard services;|
|3.||Maintain a video surveillance system that records continuously 24 hours a day;|
|4.||Ensure adequate lighting is installed and maintained on and about licensed facilities;|
|5.||Only transact business during authorized hours of operations;|
Store cannabis and cannabis product only in areas identified for such purposes on drawings submitted to and approved by the State of California in connection with licensing;
|7.||Store all cannabis and cannabis products in a secured, locked room or a vault;|
|8.||Report to local law enforcement within 24 hours after being notified or becoming aware of the theft, diversion, or loss of cannabis; and|
|9.||To the extent applicable based on a licensee’s authorized scope of operations, ensure the safe transport of cannabis and cannabis products between licensed facilities, and maintain a delivery manifest in any vehicle transporting cannabis and cannabis products. Only vehicles registered with the DCC, that meet DCC distribution requirements, are to be used to transport cannabis and cannabis products.|
In addition to DCC storage and security requirements, local jurisdictions may have additional storage and security requirements. Such requirements, to the extent they exist, may vary from one locality to another.
We are in compliance with the laws of the State of California and the related cannabis licensing framework. There are no current incidences of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation which are outstanding which may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the State of California. Notwithstanding the foregoing, like most businesses, we may from time-to-time experience incidences of non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations in the states in which we operate, including the State of California, and such non-compliance may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the applicable state. However, we take steps to minimize, disclose and remedy all incidences of non-compliance which may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in all states in which we operate, including the State of California. See “Regulatory Framework – Compliance.”
We, through our subsidiaries, currently hold three (3) medical and adult-use cannabis business licenses to operate dispensaries in Santa Barbara, California, Palm Springs, California and Grover Beach, California. Our dispensaries located in Santa Barbara and Grover Beach are currently operational. Our Palm Springs dispensary’s operations, which were voluntarily suspended while the store underwent a significant renovation, resumed operations in the third quarter of 2022. In addition, one of our subsidiaries entered into a long-term lease agreement for a bespoke, ground-up build in Culver City, California. We also received approval to move forward in the merit-based application process as one of three selected applicants for a storefront retail (and ancillary delivery) permit in Culver City, California, and we estimate the Culver City dispensary will be operational in the first quarter of 2023.
Illinois Regulatory Landscape
In January 2014, the Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Pilot Program Act, which allows individuals diagnosed with certain debilitating or “qualified” medical conditions to access medical marijuana, became effective. There are over 35 qualifying conditions as part of the medical program, including epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In January 2019, the Illinois Department of Health launched the Opioid Alternative Pilot Program, that allows individuals who have/could receive a prescription for opioids to access medical marijuana.
In June 2019, Illinois legalized adult-use marijuana pursuant to the Cannabis Regulation and Tax Act (the IL Act). Effective January 1, 2020, Illinois residents 21 years of age and older may possess up to 30 grams of marijuana (non-residents may possess up to 15 grams). The IL Act authorizes the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation (IDFPR) to issue up to 75 Conditional Adult Use Dispensing Organization licenses before May 1, 2020 and an additional 110 conditional licenses during 2021 (no person may hold a financial interest in more than 10 dispensing organizations); however, conditional licenses have yet to be issued due to procedural delays related to litigation against the State of Illinois to which we are not currently a party to. Existing medical dispensaries were able to apply for an “Early Approval Adult Use Dispensing Organization License” to serve adult users at an existing medical dispensary or at a secondary site. The IDFPR has granted approximately 48 Early Approval Adult Use Dispensing Organization licenses to date. The IDFPR also held an application period for Conditional Adult Use Cannabis Dispensary Licenses from December 10, 2019 through January 2, 2020. Licenses from this round of applications have not yet been awarded, and the anticipated award date has been delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic and challenges to the application process.
The Illinois Department of Agriculture (the IL Ag. Department) is authorized to make up to 30 cultivation center licenses available between the state’s medical and adult-use programs. As with existing medical dispensaries, existing cultivation centers were able to apply for an “Early Approval Adult Use Cultivation Center License.” The IL Ag. Department has issued approximately 21 Early Approval Adult Use Cultivation Centers to date. No person can hold a financial interest in more than three cultivation centers, and the centers are limited to 210,000 sq. ft. of canopy space. Cultivation centers are also prohibited from discriminating in price when selling to dispensaries, craft growers, or infuser organizations. The IL Ag. Department is also permitted to license up to 40 craft growers and 40 infuser organizations by July 1, 2020 (license awards have been delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic) and another 60 of each license type by the end of 2021; however, the remaining 60 craft grower licenses have yet to be awarded due to procedural delays related to litigation against the State of Illinois to which we are not currently a party to. The IL Ag. Department closed the application period for craft growers, infusers, and cannabis transporters in March 2020.
The IL Act imposes several operational requirements on adult-use licensees and requires prospective licensees to demonstrate their plans to comply with such requirements. For example, applicants for dispensary licenses must include an employee training plan, a security plan, recordkeeping and inventory plans, a quality control plan, and an operating plan. Applicants for craft growers must similarly submit a facility plan, an employee training plan, a security plan, a record keeping plan, a cultivation plan, a product safety and labeling plan, a business plan, an environmental plan, and more.
Licensees must establish methods for identifying, recording, and reporting diversion, theft, or loss, correcting inventory errors, and complying with product recalls. Licensees also must comply with detailed inventory, storage, and security requirements. Cultivation licenses are subject to similar operational requirements, such as complying with detailed security and storage requirements, and must also establish plans to address energy, water, and waste-management needs. Dispensary licenses will be renewed bi-annually, and cultivation licenses, craft grower licenses, infuser organization licenses, and transporter licenses will be renewed annually.
The IL Ag. Department is authorized to promulgate, and has promulgated, regulations for cultivators, craft growers, infuser organizations, and transporting organizations. The IDFPR is authorized to regulate dispensaries but has not yet issued adult-use regulations. Therefore, currently licensed adult-use retail operations are governed by the IL Act and adult-use retail applications submitted during the application window which closed on January 2, 2020 will be evaluated under and in accordance with the IL Act.
We, through our subsidiaries in the State of Illinois, are in compliance with applicable licensing requirements in the State of Illinois.
To the knowledge of management, there have not been any statements or guidance made by federal authorities or prosecutors regarding the risk of enforcement action specific to the State of Illinois. For more information on federal enforcement and the risks associated with the U.S. cannabis regulatory environment generally, see without limitation, “Risk Factors – Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment.”
As of the date of this prospectus, we operate four adult-use (with two co-located medical) cannabis dispensaries in the State of Illinois, located in or around the cities of Sauget, Normal and Bloomington. All four dispensaries are operated under our BEYOND/HELLO™ brand.
On August 19, 2021, Jushi’s partner Northern Cardinal Ventures, LLC was selected to receive a conditional retail dispensary license in Illinois via the state’s lottery process. The dispensary location is designated for the Peoria Bureau of Labor Statistics region in Illinois and will be BEYOND/HELLO’s fifth location in the state. The issuance of a conditional retail dispensary license to Northern Cardinal Ventures, LLC, along with other selected recipients via the state’s lottery process, is presently enjoined pursuant to ongoing litigation against the state, of which neither Northern Cardinal Ventures, LLC nor Jushi is a party to.
All medical and adult-use dispensing organizations licensed by IDFPR hold registration certificates valid for a period of one year and subject to annual renewals after required fees are paid and the organization remains in good standing. Renewals are generally communicated by IDFPR within 90 days of a license's expiration through email and include a renewal form. Provided that the requisite renewal fees are paid, the renewal application is submitted in a timely manner, and there are no material violations noted against the applicable license, Beyond Hello IL, LLC (BHIL) would expect to receive the applicable renewed license in the ordinary course of business. Any unexpected delays or costs associated with the licensing renewal process could impede the ongoing or planned operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
License and Regulations
Medical marijuana retail dispensary licenses permit BHIL to purchase cannabis and cannabis products from licensed cultivation/processing facilities and to sell cannabis and cannabis products to registered patients. The adult-use dispensing organization license permits BHIL to acquire cannabis from a licensed cultivation center, craft grower, processing organization, or another dispensary and to sell cannabis and cannabis products (and limited other items) to adult-use purchasers, registered medical cannabis patients and registered caregivers.
BHIL must operate in accordance with the representations made in its license application materials, unless otherwise approved by the IDFPR. It must include its name on the packaging of any cannabis product it sells. All medical products must be obtained from an Illinois registered medical cultivation center, while all adult-use products must be obtained from a licensed adult-use cultivation center, craft grower, processing organization, or another dispensary. BHIL must inspect and document (e.g., through the State of Illinois tracking system and in accordance with SOPs) all cannabis and cannabis products it acquires for resale. Any cannabis or cannabis products not properly packaged, labeled or inconsistent with State of Illinois tracking records must be rejected at the time of delivery. At all times, dispensing facilities must remain in compliance with all applicable building, fire, safety and land use laws, rules and regulations, and may not operate a drive through window or offer delivery services. BHIL may only operate during state regulated approved hours (6 a.m. to 10 p.m., daily) and must ensure two or more employees are present during all operating hours.
Each dispensary must submit a list of all third-party vendors to the IDFPR and identify all service professionals that will work at the dispensary by name and set forth a description of the services such person will provide. No service professional may work in the dispensary until his or her name is provided to IDFPR and appears on the facility’s service professional list.
BHIL may not produce or manufacture cannabis or cannabis products and may not permit on-site consumption at its facilities. BHIL may only sell cannabis or cannabis products to consumers who present a valid medical cannabis registration identification card or valid government-issued photo identification (ID) evidencing the customer is 21 years of age or older. BHIL must deal with all suppliers on the same terms and may not enter into an exclusive agreement with any supplier. Further, BHIL may not contract with, pay, or have a profit-sharing arrangement with third party groups involved in assisting individuals with finding a physician or completing the patient or participant application; nor may it pay a referral fee to a third-party group for sending it patients or participants. No more than 40% of its adult-use inventory may originate from a single supplier. Dispensing organizations are subject to inspections, with or without notice. Licensees are required to cooperate with such inspections and must make all records, plans, logs, reports and other operational documents available for inspection and copying upon request.
Craft grower licensees are authorized to cultivate cannabis and manufacture cannabis products (including cannabis infused products), and to sell cannabis and cannabis products to licensed adult-use dispensing organizations or for use at licensed manufacturers. Transportation licensees are authorized to transport cannabis and cannabis products between licensed cannabis facilities.
Storage and Security
BHIL dispensaries must store inventory on-site in a secured and restricted-access area and enter information into the State of Illinois’ tracking system as required by Illinois law and IDFPR rules. Any cannabis or cannabis products in an open or defective package, which have expired, or which we otherwise have reason to believe have been opened or tampered with must be segregated in secure storage until promptly and properly disposed of.
Dispensing facilities are also required to implement security measures designed to deter and prevent unauthorized entry into the facility (and restricted-access areas) and theft, loss or diversion of cannabis or cannabis products. In this respect, dispensing facilities must maintain a commercial grade alarm and surveillance system installed by an Illinois licensed private alarm contractor or private alarm contractor agency. BHIL must also implement various security measures, as required by law, rule regulation or SOPs, designed to protect the premises, customers and dispensing organization agents (employees).
The State of Illinois uses BioTrack THC as its inventory tracking system. All dispensing organization licensees are required to use a real-time, web-based inventory tracking/point-of-sale system that is accessible to IDFPR at any time, and at a minimum, tracks date of sale, amount, price, and currency. BHIL uses BioTrack THC for both inventory management and as a point-of-sale system. Licensees are also required to track each sales transaction at the time of the sale, daily beginning and ending inventory, acquisitions (including information about the supplier and the product) and disposal.
Currently, licensed cultivation centers may transport cannabis and cannabis products in accordance with certain guidelines; however, from July 1, 2020 cultivation centers are prohibited from transporting adult-use cannabis without obtaining a separate transporting organization license, provided that such prohibition was and remains suspended pursuant to Executive Order 2020-45. For medical marijuana, dispensing organizations must receive a copy of the shipping manifest prepared by the cultivation center in advance of transport and is required to check the product delivered against such manifest at the time of delivery. All cannabis and cannabis products must be packaged in properly labeled and sealed containers and may not be accepted by a dispensary recipient if packaging is damaged or labels are missing, damaged or tampered with.
We are in compliance with the laws of the State of Illinois and the related cannabis licensing framework. There are no current incidences of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation outstanding which have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the State of Illinois. Notwithstanding the foregoing, like all businesses we may from time-to-time experience incidences of non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations in the states in which we operate, including the State of Illinois, and such non-compliance may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the applicable state. However, we take steps to minimize, disclose and remedy all incidences of non-compliance which may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in all states in which we operate, including the State of Illinois. See “Regulatory Framework – Compliance.”
Massachusetts Regulatory Landscape
Cannabis for medical use was legalized in Massachusetts by voter approval of the Massachusetts Medical Marijuana Initiative in 2012. The law took effect on January 1, 2013, eliminating criminal and civil penalties for the possession and use of up to a 60-day or ten (10) ounce supply of marijuana for medical use for patients possessing a State-issued registration card. On November 8, 2016, Massachusetts voters approved Question 4 or the Massachusetts Marijuana Legalization, Regulation and Taxation of Marijuana Initiative, which allowed for recreational or “adult-use” cannabis in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. On July 28, 2017, the Cannabis Control Commission (the CCC) was established under Chapter 55 of the Acts of 2017 to implement and administer laws enabling access to medical and adult-use cannabis. The Commission was appointed on September 12, 2017. On November 16, 2018, the CCC issued the first notices for retail marijuana establishments to commence adult-use operations in Massachusetts. Under the current law, there are no State-wide limits on the total number of licenses issued; however, no individual or entity shall be an owner or a controlling person over more than three licenses in a particular class of license. Similarly, no individual, corporation or other entity shall be an owner or in a position to control the decision making of more than three licenses in a particular class of license. In addition, all marijuana establishments are required to enter into host community agreements with the municipality in which they are located.
Through an affiliate we acquired the licenses previously held by Nature’s Remedy, which include one (1) final adult-use cultivation license, one (1) final adult-use product manufacturer license and two (2) final adult-use retailer licenses in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Nature’s Remedy also holds one (1) provisional license for adult-use cultivation. Furthermore, Nature’s Remedy held one (1) medical license that permits vertically-integrated operations including the ability to maintain one (1) medical marijuana dispensary in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Under the terms of the adult-use marijuana cultivator license, the licensee may cultivate, process and package marijuana, and transfer marijuana products to marijuana establishments, but not to consumers. An adult-use marijuana product manufacturer is an entity authorized to obtain, manufacture, process and package marijuana and marijuana products, to transfer marijuana and marijuana products to marijuana establishments, but not to consumers. An adult-use marijuana retailer is an entity authorized to purchase, repackage, white label, and transport marijuana and marijuana products from marijuana establishments and transfer marijuana and marijuana products to marijuana establishments and to sell to consumers. The medical marijuana treatment center (MTC) licenses are vertically integrated and permit a licensee to cultivate, manufacture, process, package, transport, deliver, sell, and purchase marijuana pursuant to the terms of the medical licenses. Massachusetts does not issue a single vertically integrated adult-use license like the MTC license. License types for adult-use are individual for each function and a licensee may pursue multiple license types. Because marijuana is not federally legal, a licensee can sell only cannabis that is grown and manufactured in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. An adult-use marijuana retailer provides a retail location which may be accessed by consumers 21 years of age or older or, if the retailer is co-located with an MTC, by individuals who are registered qualifying patients with the Medical Use of Marijuana Program with a registration card. In order for a customer to be dispensed marijuana, they must present a valid government issued photo ID immediately upon entry of the retail facility. If the individual is younger than 21 years old but 18 years of age or older, he or she shall not be admitted unless he or she produces an active medical registration card issued by the CCC. If the individual is younger than 18 years old, he or she shall not be admitted unless he or she produces an active medical registration card and is accompanied by a personal caregiver with an active medical registration card. In addition to the medical registration card, registered qualifying patients 18 years of age and older and personal caregivers must also produce proof of identification. Each recreational customer may be dispensed no more than one ounce of marijuana or five grams of marijuana concentrate per transaction as outlined in 935 CMR 500.140(3)(a)(1). Medical patients may be dispensed up to a 60-day supply of marijuana, or the equivalent amount of marijuana in marijuana infused products, that a registered qualifying patient would reasonably be expected to need over a period of 60 calendar days for his or her personal medical use, which is ten ounces, subject to 935 CMR 501.140(3)(a). Allowable forms of marijuana in Massachusetts include smokable dried flower, dried flower for vaporizing, cannabis derivative products (i.e., vape pens, gel caps, tinctures, etc.) and medical cannabis-infused products, including edibles.
The CCC has selected METRC as the Commonwealth of Masachusetts’ seed to sale tracking system used to track commercial cannabis activity and movement across the distribution chain. The system allows for other third-party system integration via application programming interface.
Medical Cannabis Regulations
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has authorized the cultivation, possession and distribution of marijuana for medical purposes by certain licensed Massachusetts marijuana businesses. The Medical Use of Marijuana Program (the MUMP) registers qualifying patients, personal caregivers, MTCs, and MTC agents. MTCs were formerly known as Registered Marijuana Dispensaries (RMDs). The MUMP was established by Chapter 369 of the Acts of 2012, “An Act for the Humanitarian Medical Use of Marijuana”, following the passage of the Massachusetts Medical Marijuana Initiative, Ballot Question 3, in the 2012 general election. Additional statutory requirements governing the MUMP were enacted by the Legislature in 2017 and codified at G.L. c. 94I, et. seq. (referred to herein as the Massachusetts Medical Act). MTC Certificates of Registration are vertically integrated licenses in that each MTC Certificate of Registration entitles a license holder to one cultivation facility, one processing facility and one dispensary locations. There is a limit of three MTC licenses per person/entity. The CCC regulations, 935 CMR 501.000 et seq. (referred to herein as the Massachusetts Medical Regulations), provide a regulatory framework that requires MTCs to cultivate, process, transport and dispense medical cannabis in a vertically integrated marketplace. Patients with debilitating medical conditions qualify to participate in the program, including conditions such as cancer, glaucoma, positive status for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency virus (AIDS), hepatitis C, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis when such diseases are debilitating, and other debilitating conditions as determined in writing by a qualifying patient’s healthcare provider. The CCC assumed control of the MUMP from the Department of Public Health on December 23, 2018. The CCC approved revised regulations for the MUMP on November 30, 2020, which are now effective.
Medical Cannabis Licensing Requirements
The Massachusetts Medical Regulations delineate the licensing requirements for MTCs in Massachusetts. Licensed entities must demonstrate the following: (i) they are licensed and in good standing with the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Revenue and Department of Unemployment Assistance; (ii) no executive, member or any entity owned or controlled by such executive or member directly or indirectly controls more than three MTC licenses; (iii) an MTC may not cultivate medical cannabis from more than two locations statewide; (iv) MTC agents must be registered with the CCC; (v) an MTC must have a program to provide reduced cost or free marijuana to patients with documented verifiable financial hardships; (vi) one executive of an MTC must register with the Massachusetts Department of Criminal Justice Information Services on behalf of the entity as an organization user of the Criminal Offender Record Information system; (vii) the MTC applicant has at least $500,000 in its control as evidenced by bank statements, lines of credit or equivalent; and (viii) payment of the required application fee.
In an MTC application, an applicant must also demonstrate or include: (i) the name, address, date of birth and resumes of each executive of the applicant and of the members of the entity; (ii) a plan to obtain liability insurance coverage in compliance with statutes; (iii) a detailed summary of the business plan for the MTC; (iv) an operational plan for the cultivation of marijuana including a detailed summary of policies and procedures; and (v) a detailed summary of the operating policies and procedures for the MTC including security, prevention of diversion, storage of marijuana, transportation of marijuana, inventory procedures, procedures for quality control and testing of product for potential contaminants, procedures for maintaining confidentiality as required by law, personnel policies, dispensing procedures, record keeping procedures, plans for patient education and any plans for patient or personal caregiver home delivery. An MTC applicant must also demonstrate that it has: (i) a successful track record of running a business; (ii) a history of providing healthcare services or services providing marijuana for medical purposes in or outside of Massachusetts; (iii) proof of compliance with the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; (iv) complied with the laws and orders of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; and (v) a satisfactory criminal and civil background. Finally, an MTC applicant must specify a cultivation tier for their license, which establishes the minimum and maximum square footage of canopy for their cultivation operation.
Upon the determination by the CCC that an MTC applicant has responded to the application requirements in a satisfactory fashion, the MTC applicant is required to pay the applicable registration fee and shall be issued a Provisional MTC license and, following completion of certain regulatory requirements, a Final MTC license.
After receipt of a Provisional MTC license, the CCC shall review architectural plans for the building of the MTC’s cultivation facility and/or dispensing facilities, and shall either approve, modify or deny the same. Once approved, the MTC provisional license holder shall construct its facilities in conformance with the requirements of the Massachusetts Medical Regulations. Once the CCC completes its inspections and issues approval for an MTC of its facilities, the CCC shall issue a Final MTC License to the MTC applicant. Final MTC Licenses are valid for one year, and shall be renewed by filing the required renewal application no later than sixty days prior to the expiration of the certificate of registration. A licensee may not begin cultivating marijuana until it has been issued a Final MTC License by the CCC.
MTC Licenses in Massachusetts are renewed annually. Before expiry, licensees are required to submit a renewal application. While renewals are granted annually, there is no ultimate expiry after which no renewals are permitted. Additionally, in respect of the renewal process, provided that the requisite renewal fees are paid, the renewal application is submitted in a timely manner, and there are no material violations noted against the applicable license, we would expect to receive the applicable renewed licenses in the ordinary course of business.
Massachusetts Medical Cannabis Dispensary Operational Requirements
An MTC shall follow its written and approved operation procedures in the operation of its dispensary locations. Operating procedures shall include (i) security measures in compliance with the Massachusetts Medical Regulations; (ii) employee security policies including personal safety and crime prevention techniques; (iii) hours of operation and after-hours contact information; (iv) a price list for marijuana; (v) storage and waste disposal protocols in compliance with state law; (vi) a description of the various strains of marijuana that will be cultivated and dispensed, and the forms that will be dispensed; (vii) procedures to ensure accurate recordkeeping including inventory protocols; (viii) plans for quality control; (ix) a staffing plan and staffing records; (x) diversion identification and reporting protocols; and (xi) policies and procedures for the handling of cash on MTC premises including storage, collection frequency and transport to financial institutions. The siting of dispensary locations is expressly subject to local/municipal approvals pursuant to state law, and municipalities control the permitting application process that an MTC must comply with. More specifically, an MTC is to comply with all local requirements regarding siting, provided however that if no local requirements exist, an MTC shall not be sited within a radius of 500 feet of a school, daycare center, or any facility in which children commonly congregate. The 500-foot distance under this section is measured in a straight line from the nearest point of the facility in question to the nearest point of the proposed MTC. The Massachusetts Medical Regulations require that MTCs limit their inventory of seeds, plants, and useable marijuana to reflect the projected needs of registered qualifying patients. An MTC may only dispense to a registered qualifying patient or caregiver who has a current valid certification.
Massachusetts Medical Cannabis Security and Storage Requirements
An MTC is to implement sufficient security measures to deter and prevent unauthorized entrance into areas containing marijuana and theft of marijuana at the MTC. These measures must include: (i) allowing only registered qualifying patients, caregivers, dispensary agents, authorized persons, or approved outside contractors access to the MTC facility; (ii) preventing individuals from remaining on the premises of an MTC if they are not engaging in activities that are permitted; (iii) disposing of marijuana or by-products in compliance with law; (iv) establishing limited access areas accessible only to authorized personnel; (v) storing finished marijuana in a secure locked safe or vault; (vi) keeping equipment, safes, vaults or secured areas securely locked; (vii) ensuring that the outside perimeter of the MTC is sufficiently lit to facilitate surveillance; and (viii) ensuring that landscaping or foliage outside of the RMD does not allow a person to conceal themselves. An MTC shall also utilize a security/alarm system that: (i) monitors entry and exit points and windows and doors, (ii) includes a panic/duress alarm, (iii) includes system failure notifications, (iv) includes 24-hour video surveillance of safes, vaults, sales areas, areas where marijuana is cultivated, processed or dispensed, and (v) includes date and time stamping of all records and the ability to produce a clear, color still photo. The video surveillance system shall have the capacity to remain operational during a power outage. The MTC must also maintain a backup alarm system with the capabilities of the primary system, and both systems are to be maintained in good working order and are to be inspected and tested on regular intervals.
Massachusetts Medical Cannabis Transportation Requirements
Marijuana or marijuana-infused products (MIPs) may be transported between licensed MTCs by MTC agents on behalf of an MTC. MTCs or deliver-only retailers may, with CCC approval, transport marijuana or MIPS directly to registered qualifying patients and caregivers as part of a home delivery program. An MTC shall staff transport vehicles with a minimum of two dispensary agents. At least one agent shall remain with the vehicle when the vehicle contains marijuana or MIPs. Prior to leaving the origination location, an MTC must weigh, inventory, and account for, on video, the marijuana to be transported.
Marijuana must be packaged in sealed, labeled, and tamper-proof packaging prior to and during transportation. In the case of an emergency stop, a log must be maintained describing the reason for the stop, the duration, the location, and any activities of personnel exiting the vehicle. An MTC shall ensure that delivery times and routes are randomized. Each MTC agent shall carry his or her CCC-issued MUMP ID Card when transporting marijuana or MIPs and shall produce it to CCC representatives or law enforcement officials upon request. Where videotaping is required when weighing, inventorying, and accounting of marijuana before transportation or after receipt, the video must show each product being weighed, the weight, and the manifest. An MTC must document and report any unusual discrepancy in weight or inventory to the CCC and local law enforcement within 24 hours. An MTC shall report to the CCC and local law enforcement any vehicle accidents, diversions, losses, or other reportable incidents that occur during transport, within 24 hours. An MTC shall retain transportation manifests for no less than one year and make them available to the CCC upon request. Any cash received from a qualifying patient or personal caregiver must be transported to an MTC immediately upon completion of the scheduled deliveries. Vehicles used in transportation must be owned, leased or rented by the MTC, properly registered, and contain a GPS system that is monitored by the MTC during transport of marijuana and said vehicle must be inspected and approved by the CCC prior to use.
During transit, an MTC is to ensure that: (i) marijuana or MIPs are transported in a secure, locked storage compartment that is part of the vehicle transporting the marijuana or MIPs; (ii) the storage compartment cannot be easily removed (for example, bolts, fittings, straps or other types of fasteners may not be easily accessible and not capable of being manipulated with commonly available tools); (iii) marijuana or MIPs are not visible from outside the vehicle; and (iv) the product is transported in a vehicle that bears no markings indicating that the vehicle is being used to transport marijuana or MIPs and does not indicate the name of the MTC. Each MTC agent transporting marijuana or MIPs shall have access to a secure form of communication with personnel at the origination location when the vehicle contains marijuana or MIPs.
Massachusetts Adult-Use Cannabis Licensing Requirements
Many of the same application requirements exist for an adult-use marijuana establishment license application as to those for a medical MTC application, and each owner, officer or member must undergo background checks and fingerprinting with the CCC. Applicants must submit the location and identification of each site, and must establish a property interest in the same, and the applicant and the local municipality must have entered into a host agreement authorizing the location of the adult-use marijuana establishment within the municipality, and said agreement must be included in the application. Applicants must include disclosure of any regulatory actions against it by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the civil and criminal history of the applicant and its owners, officers, principals or members. The application must include, amongst other information, the proposed timeline for achieving operations, liability insurance, a business plan, and a detailed summary describing the marijuana establishment’s proposed operating policies including security, prevention of diversion, storage, transportation, inventory procedures, quality control, dispensing procedures, personnel policies, record keeping, maintenance of financial records, diversity plans, and employee training protocols.
Massachusetts Adult-Use Cannabis Dispensary Operational Requirements
Marijuana retailers are subject to certain operational requirements in addition to those imposed on marijuana establishments generally. Dispensaries must immediately inspect patrons’ identification to ensure that everyone who enters is at least 21 years of age. Dispensaries may not dispense more than one ounce of marijuana or five grams of marijuana concentrate per transaction. Point-of-sale systems must be approved by the CCC, and retailers must record sales data. Records must be retained and available for auditing by the CCC and the Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Revenue and Department of Unemployment Assistance. Retailers are required to conduct monthly analyses of equipment and sales data to determine that such systems have not been altered or interfered with to manipulate sales data, and to report any such discrepancies to the CCC.
Dispensaries must also make consumer education materials available to patrons in languages designated by the CCC, with analogous materials for visually- and hearing-impaired persons. Such materials must include:
|1.||A warning that marijuana has not been analyzed or approved by the FDA, that there is limited information on side effects, that there may be health risks associated with using marijuana, and that it should be kept away from children;|
|2.||A warning that when under the influence of marijuana, driving is prohibited and machinery should not be operated;|
|3.||Information to assist in the selection of marijuana, describing the potential differing effects of various strains of marijuana, as well as various forms and routes of administration;|
|4.||Materials offered to consumers to enable them to track the strains used and their associated effects;|
|5.||Information describing proper dosage and titration for different routes of administration, with an emphasis on using the smallest amount possible to achieve the desired effect;|
|6.||A discussion of tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal;|
|7.||Facts regarding substance abuse signs and symptoms, as well as referral information for substance abuse treatment programs;|
|8.||A statement that consumers may not sell marijuana to any other individual;|
|9.||Information regarding penalties for possession or distribution of marijuana in violation of Massachusetts law; and|
|10.||Any other information required by the CCC.|
Massachusetts Adult-Use Cannabis Security and Storage Requirements
Each marijuana establishment must implement sufficient safety measures to deter and prevent unauthorized entrance into areas containing marijuana and theft of marijuana at the establishment. Security measures taken by the establishments to protect the premises, employees, consumers and general public shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
|1.||Positively identifying and limiting access to individuals 21 years of age or older who are seeking access to the marijuana establishment or to whom marijuana products are being transported;|
|2.||Adopting procedures to prevent loitering and ensure that only individuals engaging in activity expressly or by necessary implication are allowed to remain on the premises;|
|3.||Proper disposal of marijuana in accordance with applicable regulations;|
|4.||Securing all entrances to the marijuana establishment to prevent unauthorized access;|
|5.||Establishing limited access areas which shall be accessible only to specifically authorized personnel limited to include only the minimum number of employees essential for efficient operation;|
|6.||Storing all finished marijuana products in a secure, locked safe or vault in such a manner as to prevent diversion, theft or loss;|
|7.||Keeping all safes, vaults, and any other equipment or areas used for the production, cultivation, harvesting, processing or storage, including prior to disposal, of marijuana or marijuana products securely locked and protected from entry, except for the actual time required to remove or replace marijuana;|
|8.||Keeping all locks and security equipment in good working order;|
|9.||Prohibiting keys, if any, from being left in the locks or stored or placed in a location accessible to persons other than specifically authorized personnel;|
|10.||Prohibiting accessibility of security measures, such as combination numbers, passwords or electronic or biometric security systems, to persons other than specifically authorized personnel;|
|11.||Ensuring that the outside perimeter of the marijuana establishment is sufficiently lit to facilitate surveillance, where applicable;|
|12.||Ensuring that all marijuana products are kept out of plain sight and are not visible from a public place, outside of the marijuana establishment, without the use of binoculars, optical aids or aircraft;|
|13.||Developing emergency policies and procedures for securing all product following any instance of diversion, theft or loss of marijuana, and conduct an assessment to determine whether additional safeguards are necessary;|
|14.||Establishing procedures for safe cash handling and cash transportation to financial institutions to prevent theft, loss and associated risks to the safety of employees, customers and the general public;|
|15.||Sharing the marijuana establishment’s floor plan or layout of the facility with law enforcement authorities, and in a manner and scope as required by the municipality and identifying when the use of flammable or combustible solvents, chemicals or other materials are in use at the marijuana establishment;|
|16.||Sharing the marijuana establishment’s security plan and procedures with law enforcement authorities, including police and fire services departments, in the municipality where the marijuana establishment is located and periodically updating law enforcement authorities, police and fire services departments, if the plans or procedures are modified in a material way; and|
|17.||Marijuana must be stored in special limited access areas, and alarm systems must meet certain technical requirements, including the ability to record footage to be retained for at least 90 days.|
Massachusetts Adult-Use Cannabis Transportation Requirements
Marijuana products may only be transported between licensed marijuana establishments by agents of registered marijuana establishments. A licensed marijuana transporter may contract with a marijuana establishment to transport that licensee’s marijuana products to other licensed establishments. All transported marijuana products are linked to the seed-to-sale tracking program. Any marijuana product that is undeliverable or is refused by the destination marijuana establishment shall be transported back to the originating establishment. All vehicles transporting marijuana products shall be staffed with a minimum of two marijuana establishment agents. At least one agent shall remain with the vehicle at all times that the vehicle contains marijuana or marijuana products. Prior to the products leaving a marijuana establishment, the originating marijuana establishment must weigh, inventory, and account for, on video, all marijuana products to be transported. Within eight hours after arrival at the receiving marijuana establishment, the receiving establishment must re-weigh, re-inventory, and account for, on video, all marijuana products transported. Marijuana products must be packaged in sealed, labeled, and tamper or child-resistant packaging prior to and during transportation. In the case of an emergency stop during the transportation of marijuana products, a log must be maintained describing the reason for the stop, the duration, the location, and any activities of personnel exiting the vehicle. A marijuana establishment or a marijuana transporter transporting marijuana products is required to ensure that all transportation times and routes are randomized and remain within Massachusetts.
Vehicles must additionally be equipped with a video system that includes one or more cameras in the storage area of the vehicle and one or more cameras in the driver area of the vehicle. The video cameras must remain operational at all times during the transportation process and have the ability to produce a clear color still photo whether live or recorded, with a date and time stamp embedded and that does not significantly obscure the picture.
Vehicles used for transport must be owned or leased by the marijuana establishment or transporter, and they must be properly registered, inspected, and insured in Massachusetts. Marijuana may not be visible from outside the vehicle, and it must be transported in a secure, locked storage compartment. Each vehicle must have a global positioning system, and any agent transporting marijuana must have access to a secure form of communication with the originating location.
The CCC or its agents may inspect an MTC, marijuana establishment and their affiliated vehicles at any time without prior notice. An MTC or marijuana establishment shall immediately upon request make available to the CCC information that may be relevant to a CCC inspection, and the CCC may direct an MTC or marijuana establishment to test marijuana for contaminants. Any violations found will be noted in a deficiency statement that will be provided to the MTC or marijuana establishment, and the MTC or marijuana establishment shall thereafter submit a Plan of Correction to the CCC outlining with particularity each deficiency and the timetable and steps to remediate the same. The CCC shall have the authority to suspend or revoke a certificate of registration in accordance with the applicable regulations.
Nevada Regulatory Landscape
Medical marijuana use was legalized in Nevada by a ballot initiative in 2000. In November 2016, voters in Nevada passed an adult-use marijuana measure to allow for the sale of adult-use marijuana in the state. The first dispensaries to sell adult-use marijuana began sales in July 2017. The Nevada Cannabis Compliance Board (NV CCB) is the regulatory agency overseeing the medical and adult-use cannabis programs. Similar to California, cities and counties in Nevada are allowed to determine the number of local marijuana licenses they will issue.
To the knowledge of management, there have not been any statements or guidance made by federal authorities or prosecutors regarding the risk of enforcement action specific to the State of Nevada. For more information on federal enforcement and the risks associated with the U.S. cannabis regulatory environment generally, see without limitation, “Risk Factors – Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment.”
FBS NV holds medical and adult-use cannabis cultivation, processing and distribution licenses issued by the NV CCB and a hemp handler license issued by the Nevada Department of Agriculture (NV DOA). Under applicable laws, licenses issued by the NV CCB or the NV DOA permit the applicable entities to cultivate, manufacture/process, package, sell or purchase pursuant to the terms of the license, which is issued by the NV CCB under the provisions of Nevada Revised Statutes section 453A.
In March 2022, we acquired 100% of the equity interest of an entity operating an adult-use and medical retail dispensary under the name The Apothecarium, which is used under license with an affiliate of TerrAscend Corp. in Las Vegas, Nevada. Additionally, in April 2022, we acquired NuLeaf, a Nevada-based vertically integrated operator. NuLeaf operates three adult-use and medical retail dispensaries in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Lake Tahoe, Nevada, in addition to a 27,000 sq. ft. cultivation facility in Sparks, Nevada, as well as a 13,000 sq. ft. processing facility in Reno, Nevada.
All marijuana establishments must register with the NV CCB. If applications contain all required information and after vetting by officers, establishments are issued a medical marijuana establishment registration certificate. In a local governmental jurisdiction that issues business licenses, the issuance by the NV CCB of a medical marijuana establishment registration certificate is considered provisional until the local government has issued a business license for operation and the establishment is in compliance with all applicable local governmental ordinances. Final registration certificates are valid for a period of one year and are subject to annual renewals after required fees are paid and the business remains in good standing. Renewal requests are typically communicated through email from the NV CCB and include a renewal form. The renewal periods serve as an update for the NV CCB on the licensee’s status toward active licensure. It is important to note that provisional licenses do not permit the operation of any commercial or medical cannabis activity. Only after a provisional licensee has gone through necessary state and local inspections, if applicable, and has received a final registration certificate from the NV CCB may an entity engage in cannabis business operation.
Any unexpected delays or costs associated with the licensing renewal process could impede the ongoing or planned operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
License and Regulations
In the State of Nevada, only cannabis that is grown in the State of Nevada can be sold in the State of Nevada.
Retail dispensary licenses and registration certificates permit a license holder to purchase marijuana from cultivation facilities, marijuana and marijuana products from product manufacturing facilities and marijuana from other retail stores and allows the sale of marijuana and marijuana products to consumers.
Medical cultivation licenses permit a license holder to acquire, possess, cultivate, deliver, transfer, have tested, transport, supply or sell marijuana and related supplies to medical marijuana dispensaries, facilities for the production of edible medical marijuana products and/or medical marijuana-infused products, or other medical marijuana cultivation facilities. One must have a final medical registration certificate in order to apply for adult-use status. Once so licensed, adult-use cultivators are authorized to perform the previously described for the adult-use market.
Medical product manufacturing licenses permit a license holder to acquire, possess, manufacture, deliver, transfer, transport, supply, or sell edible marijuana products or marijuana infused products to other medical marijuana production facilities or medical marijuana dispensaries. One must have a final medical registration certificate in order to apply for adult-use status. Once so licensed, adult-use cultivators are authorized to perform the previously described for the adult-use market.
Hemp handler licenses permit a license holder to handle raw industrial hemp, purchase hemp-derived constituents (such as hemp-derived CBD) from licensed hemp operators, and to infuse or manufacture products containing hemp-derived constituents.
The State of Nevada uses METRC as its computerized T&T system used to track commercial cannabis on a seed-to-sale basis. Individual licensees whether, directly or through third-party integration systems, are required to push data to the state to meet all reporting requirements. Our chosen seed-to-sale system will capture the required data points for cultivation, manufacturing and retail as required under state law.
Storage and Security
To ensure the safety and security of cannabis business premises and to maintain adequate controls against diversion, theft, and loss of cannabis and cannabis products, FBS NV is required to do the following:
|1.||Maintain an enclosed, locked facility;|
|2.||Have a single secure entrance;|
|3.||Train employees in security measures and controls, emergency response protocol, confidentiality requirements, safe handling of equipment, procedures for handling products, as well as the differences in strains, methods of consumption, methods of cultivation, methods of fertilization and methods for health monitoring;|
|4.||Implement and install, at a minimum, the following security equipment and practices to deter and prevent unauthorized entrances:|
|a.||devices that detect unauthorized intrusion (which may include a signal system);|
|b.||exterior lighting designed to facilitate surveillance;|
|c.||electronic monitoring devices, further including (without limitation):|
|a.||at least one call-up monitor that is at least 19 inches in size;|
|b.||a video printer that can immediately produce a clear still photo from any video camera image;|
|c.||video cameras with a recording resolution of at least 704 x 480 that full capture all of the building’s points of ingress and egress as well as all interior limited access areas such that such cameras capture and can identify any activity occurring in or adjacent to the building;|
|d.||a video camera at each point-of-sale location which allows for the identification of any person who holds a valid registry identification card, including, without limitation, a designated primary caregiver, purchasing medical marijuana;|
|e.||a video camera in each grow room that can identify any activity occurring within the grow room in low light conditions;|
|f.||a method for storing video recordings from the video cameras for at least 30 calendar days;|
|g.||a failure notification system that provides an audible and visual notification of any failure in the electronic monitoring system;|
|h.||sufficient battery backup for video cameras and recording equipment to support at least five (5) minutes of recording in the event of a power outage; and|
|i.||a security alarm to alert local law enforcement of unauthorized breach of security; and|
|1.||Implement security procedures that:|
|a.||restrict access of the establishment to only those persons/employees authorized to be there;|
|b.||deter and prevent theft;|
|c.||provide identification (badge) for those persons/employees authorized to be in the establishment;|
|e.||require and explain electronic monitoring; and|
|f.||require and explain the use of automatic or electronic notifications to alert local law enforcement of any security breaches.|
There are no incidences of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation outstanding which have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the State of Nevada. Notwithstanding the foregoing, as discussed in more detail under the subsection entitled “Compliance” below, like all businesses we may from time-to-time experience incidences of non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations in the states in which we operate, including the State of Nevada, and such non-compliance may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the applicable state. However, we take steps to minimize, disclose and remedy all incidences of non-compliance which may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in all states in which we operate, including the State of Nevada. We are not aware of any incidence of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation received by FBS NV or the failure of FBS NV to comply with applicable licensing requirements and the regulatory framework enacted by the State of Nevada.
Ohio Regulatory Landscape
House Bill 523, effective on September 8, 2016, legalized medical marijuana in Ohio. The Ohio Medical Marijuana Control Program (MMCP) allows people with certain medical conditions, upon the recommendation of an Ohio-licensed physician certified by the State Medical Board of Ohio, to purchase and use medical marijuana. House Bill 523 required that the framework for the MMCP would be in place no later than September 2018. This timeframe allowed for a deliberate process to ensure the safety of the public and to promote access to a safe product. Sales of medical marijuana in Ohio began in January 2019.
The following three state government agencies are responsible for the operation of the MMCP: (i) the Ohio Department of Commerce is responsible for overseeing medical marijuana cultivators, processors and testing laboratories; (ii) the State of Ohio Board of Pharmacy is responsible for overseeing medical marijuana retail dispensaries, the registration of medical marijuana patients and caregivers, the approval of new forms of medical marijuana and coordinating the Medical Marijuana Advisory Committee; and (iii) the State Medical Board of Ohio is responsible for certifying physicians to recommend medical marijuana and may add to the list of qualifying conditions for which medical marijuana can be recommended. Qualifying medical conditions for medical marijuana include: HIV/AIDS, Lou Gehrig’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Crohn’s disease, epilepsy or other seizure disorder, fibromyalgia, glaucoma, hepatitis C, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), pain (either chronic, severe, or intractable), Parkinson’s disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, sickle cell anemia, spinal cord disease or injury, Tourette’s syndrome, traumatic brain injury, ulcerative colitis. In order for a patient to be eligible to obtain medical marijuana, a physician must make the diagnosis of one of these conditions. The State of Ohio Board of Pharmacy has published regulations for dispensaries, for the forms and methods for administering medical marijuana, and for patients and caregivers.
Several forms of medical marijuana are legal in Ohio, these include: inhalation of marijuana through a vaporizer (not direct smoking), oils, tinctures, plant material, edibles, patches and any other forms approved by the State of Ohio Board of Pharmacy.
To the knowledge of management, there have not been any statements or guidance made by federal authorities or prosecutors regarding the risk of enforcement action specific to the State of Ohio. For more information on federal enforcement and the risks associated with the U.S. cannabis regulatory environment generally, see without limitation, “Risk Factors – Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment.”
In June 2019, we, through a subsidiary, entered into a management services agreement with FBS OH, a licensed medical marijuana processor in Ohio. In July 2021, the licensed medical marijuana processor received authorization to commence operation at the processing facility. We and the licensed medical marijuana processor have applied for a change of ownership to state regulators for the licensed medical marijuana processor to become a subsidiary us. In August 2021, we closed on the acquisition of FBS OH.
In July 2021, we acquired OhiGrow, a licensed marijuana cultivator, inclusive of an approximately 10,000 sq. ft. cultivation facility and 1.35 acres of land.
License and Regulations
To be considered for approval of a processing license, the applicant must complete all mandated requirements. To obtain a Certificate of Operation for a processing facility, the prospective licensee must be capable of operating in accordance with Chapter 3796 of the Revised Code, the Medical Marijuana Control Program. Certificates of Operation carry one-year terms. Following issuance of a Certificate of Operation, the provisionally licensed processor will be authorized to manufacture and produce medical cannabis products.
Ohio uses the METRC system as its seed-to-sale tracking system. Licensees are required to use METRC to push data to the State of Ohio to meet all of the reporting requirements. When the provisionally licensed processor is operational, it intends to implement its tracking system to comply with the State of Ohio’s tracking and reporting requirements.
Storage and Security
All licensees must have a security system that remains operational at all times and that uses commercial grade equipment to prevent and detect diversion, theft or loss of medical cannabis, including:
|•||A perimeter alarm;|
|•||Motion detectors; and|
|•||Duress and panic alarms.|
Video cameras must be installed at the processing facility and directed at all approved safes, approved vaults, cannabis sales areas, and any other area where plant material, medical cannabis extract, or medical cannabis products are being processed, stored or handled. Video surveillance must take place 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Recordings from all video cameras must be readily available for immediate review by regulating and law enforcement with jurisdiction upon request and must be retained for at least 45 days.
There are no current incidences of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation outstanding which have an impact on our business activities or operations in the State of Ohio. Notwithstanding the foregoing, like all businesses we may from time-to-time experience incidences of non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations in the states in which we operate, including the State of Ohio, and such non-compliance may have an impact on our business activities or operations in the state. However, we take steps to minimize, disclose and remedy all incidences of non-compliance which may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in all states in which we operate, including the State of Ohio. We are not aware of any incidence of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation received by the provisionally licensed medical marijuana processor that will be operated by us pursuant to the applicable management services agreement or the failure of the provisionally licensed medical marijuana processor to comply with applicable licensing requirements and the regulatory framework enacted by the State of Ohio.
Pennsylvania Regulatory Landscape
The Pennsylvania Medical Marijuana Act (the PAMMA) was signed into law on April 17, 2016 and originally provided access to Pennsylvania residents with one of 17 qualifying conditions, including epilepsy, chronic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Retail sales began in February 2018. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, which consists of nearly 13 million residents and qualifies as the fifth largest population in the U.S., operates as a high-barrier market with very limited market participation. The PAMMA authorizes only a maximum of 25 grower/processing permits and 50 dispensary permits. As part of “Phase 1” of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s permitting process in 2017, the Pennsylvania Department of Health (the PA DOH) which administers the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s Medical Marijuana Program, originally awarded only 12 grower/processing permits and 27 dispensary permits. Subsequently, in 2018, PA DOH conducted “Phase 2” of the permitting process, during which it awarded the remaining 13 grower/processing permits and 23 dispensary permits authorized under the PAMMA. In July of 2019, the PA DOH expanded the list of qualifying medical conditions to include anxiety disorders and Tourette syndrome, increasing the number of qualifying conditions to 23.
We (through our Pennsylvania subsidiaries) are in compliance with applicable licensing requirements and the regulatory framework enacted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
To the knowledge of management, there have not been any statements or guidance made by federal authorities or prosecutors regarding the risk of enforcement action specific to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. For more information on federal enforcement and the risks associated with the U.S. cannabis regulatory environment generally, see without limitation, “Risk Factors – Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment.”
We, through certain subsidiaries, hold six dispensary permits, allowing for up to 18 medical marijuana retail dispensary locations in applicable regions within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the date of this prospectus, we operate 18 medical cannabis dispensaries in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, located in or around the cities of Ardmore, Bethlehem, Bristol, Colwyn, Easton, Hazleton, Irwin, Johnstown, Philadelphia (three locations), Reading, Pittsburgh, Pottsville, Scranton (two locations), Stroudsburg, and West Chester. All the dispensaries operate under our BEYOND/HELLO™ brand.
All dispensaries must register with the PA DOH. Registration certificates are valid for a period of one year and are subject to annual renewals after required fees are paid and the business remains in good standing. Renewal requests are typically communicated through email and include a renewal form. Provided that the requisite renewal fees are paid, the renewal application is submitted in a timely manner, and there are no material violations noted against the applicable license, we would expect our Pennsylvania subsidiaries to receive the applicable renewed license in the ordinary course of business. However, any unexpected delays or costs associated with the licensing renewal process could impede the ongoing or planned operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
License and Regulations
Each retail dispensary license permits the holder to purchase marijuana and marijuana products from grower/processing facilities and allows the sale of marijuana and marijuana products to registered patients.
Site-Visits & Inspections
All licensed dispensary locations must be inspected and approved by the PA DOH before commencing live operations. Thereafter, dispensaries are subject to PA DOH inspection, whether with or without notice.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania uses MJ Freeway as a T&T system for seed-to-sale reporting. Individual permittees are required to use MJ Freeway to push data to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to meet all reporting requirements. Our subsidiaries use MJ Freeway as our in-house computerized seed-to-sale software, which integrates with the Commonwealth’s MJ Freeway program and captures the required data points for cultivation, manufacturing and retail as required in the Pennsylvania medical marijuana laws and regulations.
Storage and Security
All dispensaries are required to have a locked limited access area for the storage of medical marijuana that is expired, damaged, deteriorated, mislabeled, contaminated, recalled or whose containers or packages have been opened or breached until such product is returned to the grower/processor. Our subsidiary dispensaries maintain security systems with professional monitoring, 24-hours a day and seven days a week, and fixed cameras on the interior and exterior of the facilities in a manner consistent with Pennsylvania law. Data for surveillance systems is stored for a period of 4 years in a readily available format for investigative purposes.
We are in compliance with the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the related cannabis licensing framework. There are no current incidences of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation outstanding which have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Notwithstanding the foregoing, like all businesses we may from time-to-time experience incidences of non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations in the states in which we operate, including the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and such non-compliance may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the applicable state. However, we take steps to minimize, disclose and remedy all incidences of non-compliance which may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in all states in which we operate, including the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. See “Regulatory Framework – Compliance.”
Virginia Regulatory Landscape
Virginia legalized medical marijuana for the treatment of glaucoma and cancer as part of sweeping changes to it’s drug laws in 1979. In 2015, the Commonwealth of Virginia passed legislation that provided an affirmative defense for the possession of CBD or THC-A oil pursuant to a valid written certification for patient use of the oils from a physician to alleviate intractable epilepsy but made no provision for a patient to acquire these substances.
In 2017, Virginia commenced a program that allows registered patients to access and use cannabis oil. The enabling legislation also authorized the Commonwealth of Virginia to issue five (5) pharmaceutical processor licenses that allow the holder thereof to cultivate, manufacture and dispense medical cannabis from a single location. Pharmaceutical processor licenses are issued by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy (the VA BOP) on a regional (restricted) basis such that only one licensee is permitted to operate in each of five (5) defined Health Service Areas across the Commonwealth of Virginia. In 2018, the Commonwealth of Virginia expanded the program to allow eligible practitioners to recommend medical cannabis to patients suffering from any diseases or conditions. Additionally, the law required information about dispensed oils to be reported in the Prescription Monitoring Program (the PMP) and mandated that practitioners check the PMP prior to issuing patient certifications. In March 2020, the Commonwealth of Virginia further expanded the medical marijuana program by authorizing licensees to add 5 off-site dispensing locations within their Health Service Area, replacing definitions of CBD oil and THC-A oil with a single definition of “cannabis oil,” and removing certain restrictions applicable to oil potency. The March 2020 legislation became effective on July 1, 2020, and a subset of the regulations implementing the March 2020 legislation became effective on September 30, 2020 with the remaining provisions taking effect on February 8, 2021.
We, through Dalitso, are in compliance with applicable licensing requirements and the regulatory framework enacted by the Commonwealth of Virginia.
To the knowledge of management, there have not been any statements or guidance made by federal authorities or prosecutors regarding the risk of enforcement action specific to the Commonwealth of Virginia. For more information on federal enforcement and the risks associated with the U.S. cannabis regulatory environment generally, see without limitation, “Risk Factors – Risks Related to the Regulatory Environment.”
Dalitso currently holds a conditional approval from the VA BOP to cultivate, manufacture, and dispense medical cannabis in Health Service Area II, which covers Loudoun, Fairfax, Arlington and Prince William Counties. As of the date of this prospectus, we operate two medical cannabis dispensaries and engage in cultivation and manufacturing operations in the Commonwealth of Virginia at our facility located in Prince William County. The dispensaries operate under our BEYOND/HELLO™ brand. We are permitted to open four additional dispensaries in Health Service Area II of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
License and Regulations
Pharmaceutical processors are required to designate a “Pharmacist in Charge” to manage its operation, and to have a supervising pharmacist on duty during all hours of operation. Numerous tasks that involve handling cannabis oil must be performed by a pharmacist or a pharmacy technician acting under a pharmacist’s supervision. Those tasks include, for example, labeling oils, removing oils from inventory, measuring oils for dispensing, and selling oils. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians must have current licenses, and the ratio of pharmacists to pharmacy technicians cannot exceed 6-to-1 (prior to recent legislative changes, the ratio was 4-to-1). The VA BOP has also imposed certain educational requirements cultivation and manufacturing processes, as well as significant employee training, both upon hire and on a regular, continuous basis thereafter.
A pharmaceutical processor must operate for a minimum of 35 hours per week. Access to the facility is limited to employees performing their job duties (who must display ID badges) and patients (and their parents or guardians). Pharmacists are required to counsel registered patients (and parents/legal guardians as applicable) about medical cannabis products, including (but not limited to) proper use and storage.
As a general matter, the VA BOP prohibits use of pesticides in cultivation (with some exception) and mandates that extraction methods meet industry standards. All medical cannabis products must be branded, tested, and registered with the VA BOP before they can be dispensed. Medical cannabis products must be packaged in child-resistant containers (with limited exceptions), properly labeled, and tested (at the batch level) by qualified independent laboratories. In the course of dispensing operations, a pharmacist or pharmacy technician must check patient identification and certification before dispensing any medical cannabis product(s) and detailed records about all dispensing transactions (along with other records) must be maintained for a period of not less than three years, and the licensee must implement a stringent quality assurance program designed to prevent dispensing errors. Expired, damaged or otherwise waste cannabis plant material and products must be stored in a secure manner until properly destroyed.
Storage and Security
Pharmaceutical processors are subject to a number of inventory and security requirements under Virginia law and VA BOP regulations. For example, they must: conduct an initial comprehensive inventory; establish ongoing inventory controls and procedures; conduct weekly inventory reviews; and prepare an annual inventory report (inventory records must be made available to the VA BOP and its agents for inspection and copying). All parts of the cannabis plant and medical cannabis products (whether finished or in process) must be stored in a locked and secured vault or safe with appropriate access limitations and the pharmaceutical processor must maintain a sophisticated security system that satisfies VA BOP-mandated criteria. Cannabis and cannabis products must be stored in a generally clean, sanitary, and secure area, and storage areas and related procedures are subject to a number of VA BOP requirements. Pharmaceutical processors must install and maintain a video surveillance system that captures all areas where cannabis and cannabis products (whether finished or in process) are handled or stored. Surveillance recordings must be stored for 30 days and made available for the VA BOP’s immediate review upon request. All security breaches or other events must be promptly reported to the VA BOP.
Site-Visits & Inspections
At all times, pharmaceutical processing facilities are subject to inspection by the VA BOP and certain other authorized agencies, and pharmacists and pharmacy technicians on-site must be prepared to present their current license or registration to the VA BOP or its agencies during inspections.
Pharmaceutical processors are required to maintain an electronic tracking system comprised of an electronic radio-frequency identification seed-to-sale system capable of tracking cannabis from either the seed or immature plant stage until the cannabis oils are sold to a registered patient, parent, or legal guardian or until the cannabis, including the seeds, parts of plants, and extracts, are destroyed. The electronic tracking system shall include, at a minimum, a central inventory management system and standard and ad hoc reporting functions as required by the VA BOP (and must otherwise satisfy recordkeeping laws, rules and regulations).
We are in compliance with the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the related cannabis licensing framework. There are no current incidences of non-compliance, citations or notices of violation outstanding which have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Notwithstanding the foregoing, like all businesses we may from time-to-time experience incidences of non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations in the states in which we operate, including the Commonwealth of Virginia, and such non-compliance may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in the applicable state. However, we take steps to minimize, disclose and remedy all incidences of non-compliance which may have an impact on our licenses, business activities or operations in all states in which we operate, including the Commonwealth of Virginia. See “Regulatory Framework – Compliance.”
With the oversight and under the direction of the Vice President of Compliance, our legal department oversees, maintains, and implements a compliance program in conjunction with our operations in each jurisdiction. In addition to our legal and compliance departments, we have local regulatory/compliance counsel engaged in every jurisdiction (state and local) in which we operate. Together with on-site management in each jurisdiction, our legal and compliance departments are responsible for ensuring operations and employees strictly comply with applicable laws, regulations, and licensing conditions and ensure that operations do not endanger the health, safety or welfare of the community. We designate a duly qualified and experienced manager at each location who is responsible to coordinate with operational units within each facility (to extent applicable) to ensure that the operation and all employees are following and complying with our written security procedures and all regulatory compliance standards.
In conjunction with our human resources and operations departments, the compliance and quality departments help oversee and implement training for all employees, including on the following topics:
|•||compliance with state and local laws;|
|•||cultivation/manufacturing/dispensing/transport procedures (as applicable);|
|•||security and safety policies and procedures;|
|•||inventory control, T&T, seed-to-sale, and point of sale systems training (as applicable); and|
Our compliance program emphasizes security and inventory control to ensure strict monitoring of cannabis (including living plants and harvested plant material) and cannabis product inventory. Only authorized, properly trained employees are allowed to access our inventory management systems.
Our compliance department and legal team, comprised of in-house and local outside counsel, monitors all compliance notifications from the regulators and inspectors in each market, timely resolving any issues identified. The team maintains records of all compliance notifications received from the state regulators or inspectors and how and when the issue was resolved. We have created comprehensive standard operating procedures that include detailed descriptions and instructions for receiving shipments of inventory, inventory tracking, recordkeeping and record retention practices related to inventory, as well as procedures for performing inventory reconciliation and ensuring the accuracy of inventory tracking and recordkeeping. We maintain accurate records of our inventory at all licensed facilities. Adherence to our standard operating procedures is mandatory and ensures that our operations are compliant with the rules set forth by the applicable state and local laws, regulations, ordinances, licenses and other requirements. Training on these standard operating procedures is mandatory by all employees and defined by function and role.
We have developed and continue to refine a robust compliance program designed to ensure operational and regulatory requirements continue to be satisfied and have worked closely with experts and outside counsel to develop compliance procedures intended to assist us in monitoring compliance with U.S. state law on an ongoing basis. We will continue to work closely with outside counsel and other compliance experts to further develop, enhance and improve our compliance and risk management and mitigation processes and procedures in furtherance of continued compliance with the complex regulatory frameworks of the states where we operate. The internal compliance program currently in place includes continued monitoring by managers and executives of us and our subsidiaries to ensure that all operations conform to and comply with required laws, rules, regulations and SOPs. We further require our operating subsidiaries to report and disclose all instances of non-compliance, regulatory, administrative, or legal proceedings that may be initiated against them.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, from time to time, as with all businesses and all rules, it is anticipated that we, through our subsidiaries and establishments to which we provide operational support, may experience incidences of non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations, which may include minor matters such as:
|•||staying open slightly too late due to an excess of customers at stated closing time;|
|•||minor inventory discrepancies with regulatory reporting software;|
|•||missing fields in regulatory reports;|
|•||missing fields entries in a visitor log;|
|•||cleaning schedules not available on display;|
|•||educational materials and/or interpreter services not available in a sufficient number of languages;|
|•||updated staffing plan not immediately available on site;|
|•||improper illumination of external signage;|
|•||marijuana infused product utensils improperly stored;|
|•||partial obstruction of camera views; and/or|
|•||supplemental use of onsite surveillance room (i.e., storage).|
In addition, either on an inspection basis or in response to complaints, such as from neighbors, customers or former employees, State or local regulators may, among other things, issue investigatory- or demand-type letters, give warnings to or cite businesses which we operate or for which we provide operational support for violations, including those listed above. Such regulatory actions could lead to a requirement or directive to submit and thereafter comply with (for example) a plan of correction. Depending on the jurisdiction, it is also possible regulators may assess penalties and/or amendments, suspensions or revocations of licenses or otherwise take action that may impact our licenses, business activities, operational support activities or operations.
To minimize opportunities for non-compliance and among other measures, we have implemented regular compliance reviews to ensure our subsidiaries and establishments to which we provide operational support are operating in conformance with applicable State and local cannabis rules and regulations. In the event non-compliance is discovered, during a compliance review or otherwise, we will promptly remedy the same, including by self-reporting to applicable State and local cannabis regulators as and when required by law and will make all requisite and appropriate public disclosures of non-compliance, citations, notices of violation and the like which may have an impact on its licenses, business activities, operational support activities or operations.
State License Renewal Requirements
For each of our provisional and operational licenses, the states impose strict license renewal requirements that vary state by state. We generally must complete the renewal application process within a prescribed period of time prior to the expiration date and pay an application fee. The state licensing body can deny or revoke licenses and renewals for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to (a) submission of materially inaccurate, incomplete or fraudulent information, (b) failure of the company or any of its directors or officers to comply, or have a history of non-compliance, with any applicable law or regulation, including laws relating to minimum age of customers, safety and non-diversion of cannabis or cannabis products, taxes, child support, workers compensation and insurance coverage, or otherwise remain in good standing (c) failure to submit or implement a plan of correction for any identified violation, (d) attempting to assign registration to another entity without state approval, (e) insufficient financial resources, (f) committing, permitting, aiding or abetting of any illegal practices in the operation of a facility, (g) failure to cooperate or give information to relevant law enforcement related to any matter arising out of conduct at a licensed facility and (h) lack of responsible operations, as evidenced by negligence, disorderly or unsanitary facilities or permitting a person to use a registration card belonging to another person. Certain jurisdictions also require licensees to attend a public hearing or forum in connection with their license renewal application.
Human Capital Resources
As of June 30, 2022, we had 1,538 employees. We are committed to hiring talented individuals and maximizing individual potential, while fostering growth and career advancement. Our goal is to use the highest standards in attracting the best talent, offering competitive compensation, as well as implementing best practices in evaluating, recruiting and onboarding our human capital.
Our employees are split across the Company as follows:
As of June 30, 2022, approximately 100 employees who work in our Scranton, Pennsylvania grower processor facility and approximately 19 employees who work in Scranton, Stroudsburg and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania dispensaries are covered by a collective bargaining agreement with United Food and Commercial Workers Union, Local 1776KS. We did not experience any union work stoppages in 2021 and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.
Description of Property
Our corporate headquarters are located in Boca Raton, Florida. In addition, we have retail, cultivation or manufacturing locations in the following states: Pennsylvania, Illinois, Virginia, California, Ohio, Nevada and Massachusetts. Most of our locations are leased from third parties. We believe that our facilities and expansion plans are adequate for our current and anticipated needs. Details relating to the properties in each state are within the Business section above under “Current Operations.”
There are no actual or to our knowledge contemplated legal proceedings that we or our subsidiaries are a party to or to any of our subsidiaries’ property is the subject matter.
We maintain a website at http://www.jushico.com. Upon the date the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is declared effective, we will become subject to the informational and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and will thereafter file periodic reports and other information with the SEC. When filed, such period reports, such as our Annual Report on Form 10-K (which will include our audited financial statements), Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, will be available on our website, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish those reports to, the SEC. You may also read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Additional information relating to the Company is also available under the Company’s profile under SEDAR at www.sedar.com.
MARKET PRICE AND DIVIDENDS ON COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
Our Subordinate Voting Shares began trading on the Canadian Securities Exchange under the symbol “JUSH” on December 9, 2019 and began trading on the OTC Markets under the symbol “JUSHF” on September 23, 2019. Any over-the-counter market quotations from the OTC Markets reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.
Holders of Subordinate Voting Shares
As of June 30, 2022, we had approximately 317 shareholders of record of 194,653,132 issued and outstanding Subordinate Voting Shares, and no Multiple Voting Shares or Super Voting Shares issued and outstanding. In calculating the number of shareholders, we consider clearing agencies and security position listings as one shareholder for each agency or listing.
We have not declared distributions on Subordinate Voting Shares, Multiple Voting Shares or Super Voting Shares in the past. We currently intend to reinvest all future earnings to finance the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not intend to pay dividends on Subordinate Voting Shares, Multiple Voting Shares, Super Voting Shares or Preferred Shares in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay distributions will be at the discretion of the board of directors and will depend on the financial condition, business environment, operating results, capital requirements, any contractual restrictions on the payment of distributions and any other factors that the board of directors deems relevant.
2019 Equity Incentive Plan
The following table sets forth securities authorized for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, as amended (referred to herein as the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan or the Plan), as of December 31, 2021:
|Plan Category||Number of |
securities to be
|Equity compensation plans approved by security holders(1)(2)||20,429,120||$||3.20||7,904,819|
|Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders||—||—||—|
(1) The maximum number of Subordinate Voting Shares issuable under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan of the Company as of December 31, 2021 was 31,060,251, representing 17% of the number of the issued and outstanding Subordinate Voting Shares, which we refer to in this prospectus as the Outstanding Share Number.
(2) Excludes 2,859,151 Subordinate Voting Shares issued related to unvested restricted stock awards.
As of December 31, 2021, the following Awards were issued under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan: (i) a total of 20,429,120 Options, representing approximately 11% of the then Outstanding Share Number; and (ii) a total of 2,859,151 unvested RSAs (as defined below), representing less than 2% of the then Outstanding Share Number. As of December 31, 2021, an aggregate of 7,904,819 Subordinate Voting Shares remained available for issuance under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, representing approximately 4% of the then Outstanding Share Number.
Executive Officers and Directors
Our executive officers and directors, their positions and their ages as of June 30, 2022 are set forth below:
|James Cacioppo||60||Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer|
|Louis Jon Barack||45||President, Corporate Secretary and Interim Chief Financial Officer|
|Leonardo Garcia-Berg||58||Chief Operations Officer|
James Cacioppo has served as our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman since he co-founded us in 2018. Prior to founding Jushi, from 1993 to 2018, Mr. Cacioppo spent over two decades managing the business and allocating capital in senior management positions at several large hedge funds. Since January 2006, Mr. Cacioppo was Co-Founder and Managing Partner of One East Partners ($2.3 billion (peak assets under management)). Previously, from 2000 to 2006, Mr. Cacioppo served as President and Co-Portfolio Manager of Sandell Asset Management ($5.0 billion (peak assets under management)) and from 1995 to 2000, he served as Head of Distressed Debt for Halcyon Management, a global investment firm with over $9 billion in assets. Mr. Cacioppo earned his BA from Colgate University and his MBA from Harvard University. We believe Mr. Cacioppo is qualified to serve on our board of directors due to his managerial, start-up, financial and investing experience.
Louis Jon Barack co-founded us in 2018 and has served as our Corporate Secretary since such time, as our President since December of 2019 and as our Interim Chief Financial Officer since July of 2022. Mr. Barack brings extensive financial and cannabis industry investing experience (both public and private) to his role as President, Corporate Secretary and Interim Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Barack spent over ten years in investments at various hedge funds, including working from 2013 to 2018 at One East Capital Advisors where he focused on cannabis investments. Mr. Barack earned his BA from Princeton University and his JD/MBA from Northwestern University.
Leonardo Garcia-Berg has served as our Chief Operations Officer since 2021. Before joining Jushi, Mr. Garcia-Berg served in numerous roles at Anheuser-Busch InBEV (AB InBEV) starting from January 2010 to October 2020. As the Global Director of Value Creation, Global Procurement Officer for AB InBev, Mr. Garcia-Berg led strategies focused on improving manufacturing, logistics, sourcing and operations across the company’s breweries worldwide. In addition to his positions at AB InBEV, he also served as an international consultant for McKinsey & Company, focusing on operational strategies, procurement, organizational transformations, along with supply chain and end-to-end process optimization solutions. Mr. Garcia-Berg received his Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires in Argentina, and earned his MBA from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
Peter Adderton has served as a member of our board of directors since June 2019. Starting from 2000, Mr. Adderton is a member of the board of directors and Founder of Boost Mobile, a wireless telecommunications brand based in Australia. Under his leadership, Boost Mobile USA was purchased by Nextel/Sprint and remains a wholly owned subsidiary of Nextel/Sprint. Prior to founding Boost Mobile, Peter founded Amp’d Mobile, a wireless company and Mandalay Digital, now Digital Turbine, a mobile solutions provider. At Mandalay Digital, Peter was the Company’s CEO and Director leading it to become a Nasdaq listed company. Peter graduated from Sydney Technical College. We believe Mr. Adderton is qualified to serve on our board of directors due to his operational and marketing expertise.
Benjamin Cross has served as a member of our board of directors since June 2019. Mr. Cross spent 20 years at Morgan Stanley in both their London and New York offices in the Commodities Division until his retirement in 2015 as a Managing Director at the firm. Prior to joining Morgan Stanley, Mr. Cross worked at Merrill Lynch and the commodities exchange. Mr. Cross earned his BS from Cornell University. Presently, Mr. Cross is a Board Advisor to Ursa Space, a geospatial intelligence firm with an emphasis in measuring global oil inventories and is a commodities reporter for TheStreet.com, which he has been a reporter since July 2015. We believe Mr. Cross is qualified to serve on our board of directors due to his extensive financial markets experience and commodities knowledge.
Marina Hahn has served as a member of our board of directors since May 2021. Since February 2020, Ms. Hahn serves as a consultant at Rotkaeppchen-Mumm, a German market leader in sparkling wines and spirits. Prior to serving as a consultant at Rotkaeppchen-Mumm, Ms. Hahn co-founded ZX Ventures, a growth arm of AB InBEV from April 2018 to January 2020. Prior to ZX Ventures, Ms. Hahn served as President of the Consumer Division at Flex Pharma, from August 2014 to November 2016, an innovative biotech formed as a result of a scientific breakthrough for athletes who suffer from muscle cramps. Ms. Hahn was a founder of SVEDKA Vodka (acquired by Constellation Brands, Inc.), an irreverent lifestyle brand where she originated the iconic spokesbot, SVEDKA_grl. Ms. Hahn is a graduate of Wellesley College. We believe Ms. Hahn is qualified to serve on our board of directors due to her consumer brand experience and prior board experience.
Stephen Monroe has served as a member of our board of directors since June 2019. Since 2016, Mr. Monroe has served as President and Managing Partner of Liquid Capital Alternative Funding, an asset-based lender. Prior to joining Liquid Capital Alternative Funding, Mr. Monroe served as National Sales Manager for Short Duration Products at JP Morgan Chase & Co.; and previously in a variety of senior management positions covering cash and short duration products at Barclays and the Royal Bank of Scotland. Mr. Monroe earned his BA from Williams College. We believe Mr. Monroe is qualified to serve on our board of directors due to his vast experience in financial markets and risk management.
Our Articles of Incorporation, as amended to date, which we refer to as our Articles, provide that so long as we are a public company, the minimum number of directors is three (3) and the number of directors is set by ordinary resolution. Each director holds office until the close of the next annual general meeting of shareholders, or until his or her successor is duly elected or appointed, unless his or her office is earlier vacated. The board of directors currently consists of five (5) directors, although the number of directors set by ordinary resolution is currently six (6) and the board of directors may fill this vacancy at its discretion. Our business and affairs are managed by or under the direction of the board of directors. Pursuant to our Mandate of the board of directors, the board of directors may establish one or more committees of the board of directors, however designated, and delegate to any such committee the full power of the board of directors, to the fullest extent permitted by law.
We are not currently subject to listing requirements of any national securities exchange that has requirements that a majority of the board of directors be “independent.” All but one of the five directors are considered to be independent under the CSA Guidelines and in accordance with National Instrument 52-110—Audit Committees (NI 52-110). A director is considered independent for the purposes of NI 52-110 if he or she has no direct or indirect “material relationship” with the issuer, where “material relationship” is defined as a relationship that could, in the view of the issuer’s board of directors, be reasonably expected to interfere with the exercise of a member’s independent judgement. Our independent directors are Peter Adderton, Benjamin Cross, Marina Hahn and Steve Monroe. Mr. Cacioppo is not independent, given that he is our Chief Executive Officer.
The board of directors holds regularly scheduled meetings and at such meetings our independent directors meet in executive session. The board of directors has not appointed a lead independent director; instead, the presiding director for each executive session is rotated among the chairs of our committees.
The board of directors held four meetings during the year ended December 31, 2021. In 2021, each person serving as a director attended at least 50% of the total number of meetings of our board of directors and the majority of any committee on which he or she served.
At present, the board of directors has three standing committees, the Audit Committee, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and the Compensation Committee. The charters for our committees set forth the scope of the responsibilities of that committee.
The board of directors established an audit committee (the Audit Committee:). The Audit Committee is currently comprised of three members: Stephen Monroe (Chair), Peter Adderton and Benjamin Cross. Each of the members of the Audit Committee meets the independence requirements pursuant to NI 52-110 and each is financially literate within the meaning of NI 52-110.
The Audit Committee operates pursuant to a written charter. The principal duties and responsibilities of the Audit Committee are to assist the board of directors to:
|•||Conduct such reviews and discussions with management and the external auditors relating to the audit and financial reporting as are deemed appropriate by the Audit Committee.|
|•||Assess the integrity of internal controls and financial reporting procedures of the Company and ensure implementation of such controls and procedures.|
|•||Review the interim and annual financial statements and management’s discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial position and operating results and in the case of the annual financial statements and related management’s discussion and analysis, report thereon to the board of directors for approval of same.|
|•||Select and monitor the independence and performance of the Company’s external auditors, including attending private meetings with the external auditors and reviewing and approving all renewals or dismissals of the external auditors and their remuneration.|
|•||Provide oversight of all disclosure relating to, and information derived from, financial statements and management’s discussion and analysis.|
In fulfilling its responsibilities, the Audit Committee meets regularly with our auditor and key management members.
The Audit Committee has access to all of our books, records, facilities and personnel and may request any information as it may deem appropriate. It also has the authority to retain and compensate special legal, accounting, financial and other consultants or advisors to advise the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee is responsible for the pre-approval of all non-audit services to be provided by our auditors.
The board of directors has established a compensation committee (the Compensation Committee). The Compensation Committee is currently comprised of three members: James Cacioppo (Chair), Benjamin Cross and Stephen Monroe. All of the members of the Compensation Committee other than Mr. Cacioppo are independent for purposes of NI 52-110. Mr. Cacioppo recuses himself on compensation committee-related matters relating to himself.
The Compensation Committee operates pursuant to a written charter. The principal duties and responsibilities of the Compensation Committee are to assist the board of directors to:
|•||Review and approve annually the corporate goals and objectives applicable to the compensation of the CEO;|
|•||Evaluate, at least annually, the CEO’s performance in light of the goals and objectives set for the CEO;|
|•||Determine and make recommendations to the board of directors with respect to the CEO’s compensation level (both cash and equity-based). In determining the long-term incentive component of the CEO’s compensation, the Committee may consider our performance, shareholder returns, the value of similar incentive awards given to CEOs at comparable companies and the awards given to the Company’s CEO in past years.|
|•||Make recommendations to the board of directors regarding the compensation of non-CEO senior executive officers and the directors.|
|•||Review and make recommendations to the board of directors regarding incentive compensation plans and equity-based plans, and where appropriate or required, recommend for approval by the shareholders of the Company.|
|•||Review and discuss with management our executive compensation disclosure to be included in our management information circular and any other disclosure with respect to executive compensation to be included in any other public disclosure documents of Jushi.|
|•||Review and make recommendations to the board of directors regarding any employment agreements and any severance arrangements or plans, including any benefits to be provided in connection with a change in control, for the CEO and other executive officers.|
The Compensation Committee also has the authority to retain and compensate a compensation consultant, special legal, and other consultants or advisors.
Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee
The board of directors has established a nominating and corporate governance committee (the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee). The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee is currently comprised of three members: James Cacioppo (Chair), Benjamin Cross and Steve Monroe. All of the members of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee other than Mr. Cacioppo are independent for purposes of NI 52-110.
The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee operates pursuant to a written charter. The principal duties and responsibilities of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee are to assist the board of directors to:
|•||Identify individuals qualified to become members of the board of directors.|
|•||Recommend director nominees for each annual meeting of the Company’s shareholders and director nominees to fill any vacancies that may occur between meetings of shareholders.|
|•||Be aware of the best practices in corporate governance and develop and recommend to the board of directors a set of corporate governance standards to govern the board of directors, its committees, the Company and its employees in the conduct of the business and affairs of the Company.|
|•||Consider the diversity of the board of directors.|
|•||Develop and oversee the annual board of directors and committees of the board of directors evaluation process.|
Board Oversight of Enterprise Risk
One of the key functions of our board of directors is informed oversight of our risk management process. The board of directors does not have a standing risk management committee and instead administers this oversight function directly through the board of directors as a whole, as well as through various standing committees of our board of directors that address risks inherent in their respective areas of oversight. In particular, our board of directors is responsible for monitoring and assessing strategic risk exposure and the Audit Committee will have the responsibility to consider and discuss our major financial risk exposures and the steps our management has taken to monitor and control these exposures, including guidelines and policies to govern the process by which risk assessment and management is undertaken. The Audit Committee also monitors compliance with legal and regulatory requirements.
The board of directors has no policy regarding the need to separate or combine the offices of Chairman of the board of directors and Chief Executive Officer and instead the board of directors remains free to make this determination from time to time in a manner that seems most appropriate for Jushi. The positions of Chairman of the board of directors and Chief Executive Officer are currently held by James Cacioppo. The board of directors believes the Chief Executive Officer is in the best position to direct the independent directors’ attention on the issues of greatest importance to Jushi and its shareholders. As a result, we do not currently have a lead independent director. Our overall corporate governance policies and practices combined with the strength of our independent directors and our internal controls minimize any potential conflicts that may result from combining the roles of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.
Corporate Governance Principles and Code of Ethics
The board of directors is committed to sound corporate governance principles and practices. In order to clearly set forth our commitment to conduct our operations in accordance with our high standards of business ethics and applicable laws and regulations, the board of directors also adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, which we refer to as our Code of Ethics, which is applicable to all directors, officers and employees. A copy of the Code of Ethics is available on our corporate website at https://ir.jushico.com/.
2021 Director Compensation
Starting in the fourth quarter of 2021, each non-employee director is paid an annual retainer of $65,000 per annum in cash or equity (stock options or restricted stock) at the Company’s discretion. Previous to that, the annual retainer was $50,000. Additionally, each non-employee director historically has been provided an annual grant of restricted stock or stock options each year. Directors are also reimbursed for any out-of-pocket travel expenses incurred in order to attend meetings of the board of directors, meetings of committees of the board of directors or meetings of our shareholders.
The following table sets forth information regarding compensation awarded to, earned by or paid to our non-employee directors in connection with their service for the year ended December 31, 2021. We do not pay any compensation to our Chief Executive Officer, who is also the Chair of the board of directors, in connection with his service on our board of directors. See “Executive Compensation” for a discussion of the compensation of Mr. Cacioppo.
Fees earned or paid in
|Stock Awards ($)(2)|
|(1)||Represents amount earned or paid in cash for service as a director during fiscal year 2021.|
|(2)||Represents the grant date fair value of restricted stock and/or option awards granted in fiscal year 2021 in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation. Such grant date fair values do not take into account any estimated forfeitures related to service-based vesting. The assumptions used in calculating the grant date fair value of the awards reported in these columns are set forth in Note 15 - Share-Based Compensation and Other Benefits of our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. As of December 31, 2021, the following number of option shares and shares of restricted stock were outstanding for each of our non-employee directors in the aggregate: Mr. Adderton, 60,000 option shares and 109,080 shares of restricted stock; Mr. Cross, 60,000 option shares and 102,513 shares of restricted stock; Ms. Hahn 20,000 option shares and 17,301 shares of restricted stock; and Mr. Monroe, 73,952 option shares and 150,484 shares of restricted stock.|
|(3)||Vested 25% on the grant date and 25% each quarter thereafter.|
|(4)||Represents restricted stock granted in lieu of payment of the cash retainer.|
|(5)||Vested fully on July 1, 2022, with an exercise price of $3.91 per share.|
|(6)||Represents (i) $47,405 of options that vested 25% on the grant date and 25% each quarter thereafter, with an exercise price of $5.71 per share, and such options were granted in lieu of payment of the cash retainer, and (ii) $138,360 of options that that vest fully on July 1, 2022, with an exercise price of $3.91 per share|
Involvement in Certain Legal Proceedings
On April 21, 2021, the Company announced it had applied to the Ontario Securities Commission (the OSC), as principal regulator of the Company, for the imposition of a management cease trade order (the MCTO) under National Policy 12-203 – Management Cease Trade Orders because, due to the Company’s auditor not being able to complete its annual audit procedures in a timely manner, the Company would not be able to file its audited annual financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, the related management’s discussion and analysis, related Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer certificates and annual information form for the year ended December 31, 2020 (the Required Filings) before the required deadline of April 30, 2021. On May 3, 2021, the OSC issued the MCTO. The MCTO restricted the trading of securities of the Corporation by the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of the Corporation until the Required Filings were made. The Required Filings were made on June 9, 2021 and the MCTO was automatically revoked. All of the Company’s current directors and officers, except Leonardo Garcia-Berg and Marina Hahn, were in place on the date when the MCTO was issued on May 3, 2021. Mr. Garcia-Berg was hired by the Company on May 24, 2021 while the MCTO was in place but not appointed as an Executive Officer until June 30, 2021 after the MCTO was revoked.
On February 22, 2022, Jushi Europe filed a notice of over-indebtedness with the Swiss courts, and its auditor followed with a notice of over-indebtedness on March 11, 2022. As of the date of this prospectus, both notices are pending with the Swiss courts. Mr. Cacioppo is an officer/director of Jushi Europe. See “Business-Current Operations-Business in Europe” for more information.
This section discusses the material components of the executive compensation program for our executive officers who are named in the “Summary Compensation Table” below. As an emerging growth company, we have opted to comply with the executive compensation disclosure rules applicable to “smaller reporting companies” as such term is defined in the rules promulgated under the Securities Act, which require compensation disclosure for our principal executive officer and our two other most highly compensated executive officers. Such “named executive officers” as of December 31, 2021 and their positions were:
|•||James Cacioppo, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman|
|•||Louis Jon Barack, President, Corporate Secretary and Interim Chief Financial Officer|
|•||Leonardo Garcia-Berg, Chief Operations Officer|
This discussion may contain forward-looking statements that are based on our current plans, considerations, expectations and determinations regarding future compensation programs. Actual compensation programs that we adopt following the completion of this offering may differ materially from the currently planned programs summarized in this discussion.
The board of directors has not adopted any formal policies or procedures to determine the compensation of our directors or executive officers. The compensation of the directors and executive officers is determined by the board of directors, based on the recommendations of the Compensation Committee. Recommendations of the Compensation Committee are made giving consideration to the objectives discussed below and, if applicable, considering applicable industry data.
In April 2021, we hired executive compensation consultants to perform market research on the appropriate compensation for our named executive officers (NEOs) and other individuals in the company. Based on the results of the research, compensation packages were proposed to the Compensation Committee, who approved the current compensation. While our Chief Executive Officer is a member and typically attends meetings of our Compensation Committee, the Compensation Committee meets outside of the presence of our Chief Executive Officer when discussing and approving his compensation. In July 2022, the board of directors approved an employment agreement entered into by us and with Mr. Cacioppo.
The compensation of our NEOs in 2021 was comprised of the following major elements: (a) base salary; (b) an annual, cash bonus; and (c) stock options under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan. Base salaries, annual bonuses and long-term equity incentive compensation awards were determined on an individual basis, taking into consideration the past, current and potential contribution to our success, the NEO’s experience and expertise, the position and responsibilities of the NEO, and competitive industry pay practices for other high growth, premium brand companies of similar size and revenue growth potential.
The board of directors and our Compensation Committee considered risks associated with executive compensation and does not believe that our executive compensation policies and practices encourage its executive officers to take inappropriate or excessive risks. In addition to cash compensation, NEOs are compensated in part through the granting of options and restricted stock awards which is compensation that is both “at risk” and associated with long-term value creation. The value of such compensation is dependent upon shareholder return over the applicable vesting period which reduces the incentive for executives to take inappropriate or excessive risks as their long-term compensation is at risk.
The Compensation Committee endeavors to ensure that the philosophy and operation of our compensation program reinforces its culture and values, creates a balance between risk and reward, attracts, motivates, and retains executive officers over the long-term and aligns their interests with those of the shareholders.
Summary Compensation Table
The following table sets forth information concerning the compensation of our NEOs for the year ended December 31, 2021.
|Name and Principal Position||Year||
|All other compensation ($)(4)||
Chief Executive Officer
Louis Jon Barack
President, Corporate Secretary and Interim Chief Financial Officer
Leonardo Garcia-Berg (1)
Chief Operations Officer
|(1)||Mr. Garcia-Berg was hired by the Company on May 24, 2021 and appointed Chief Operations Officer of the Company on June 30, 2021.|
|(2)||Mr. Cacioppo and Mr. Barack each received an annual discretionary cash bonus for work performed January 1, 2021 through December 31, 2021. Mr. Garcia-Berg received a prorated annual discretionary cash bonus for work performed from his hire date through December 31, 2021.|
|(3)||The reported amounts reflect the grant date fair value of stock option awards calculated in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) ASC 718. For additional information, see Note 15 - Share-Based Compensation and Other Benefits of our audited consolidated financial statements. Such grant date fair values do not take into account any estimated forfeitures. The assumptions used in calculating the grant date fair value of the stock options reported in this table are set forth in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates—Share-Based Compensation Arrangements.”|
|(4)||Represents our matching contributions to our 401(k) plan and health and disability benefits.|
Outstanding Equity Awards at 2021 Fiscal Year End
The following table provides information regarding outstanding stock options and/or restricted stock awards held by our NEOs as of December 31, 2021:
|Name||Grant Date||Number of
of share or
units of stock
that have not
|Louis Jon Barack||4/17/2019||528,667||264,333||5||2.00||—||—||—|
|(1)||Granted 2,385,000 options which vest ratably over three years beginning on the first anniversary of the date of grant.|
|(2)||Granted 1,399,177 shares of restricted stock which vest ratably over three years beginning on May 1, 2020.|
|(3)||Granted 2,920,000 options which vest ratably over three years beginning on May 1, 2021.|
|(4)||Granted 80,000 options which vest ratably over three years beginning on May 1, 2021.|
|(5)||Granted 793,000 options which vest ratably over three years beginning on the first anniversary of the date of grant.|
|(6)||Granted 493,827 shares of restricted stock which vest ratably over three years beginning on May 1, 2020.|
|(7)||Granted 80,000 options which vest ratably over three years beginning on May 1, 2021.|
|(8)||Granted 920,000 options which vest ratably over three years beginning on May 1, 2021.|
|(9)||Granted 500,000 options which vest ratably over five years beginning on May 24, 2021. On July 28, 2022 the Company’s board of directors approved and Mr. Garcia-Berg accepted the cancellation of such options in exchange for a future grant of the same number of options with the same terms and conditions but with an exercise price reflecting the market price of the Company’s subordinate voting shares on the CSE on the date such replacement options are issued.|
|(10)||Granted 100,000 options which vest ratably over five years beginning on the first anniversary of the date of grant.|
Cacioppo Employment Agreement
On July 3, 2022, we entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Cacioppo with retroactive effect to January 1, 2022 for the position of Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the board of directors (the Cacioppo Employment Agreement). The Cacioppo Employment Agreement provides for Mr. Cacioppo’s at-will employment for an initial period of two years and one day following its effective date, with automatic renewal for one successive two-year period, unless written notice is provided at least 60 days prior to the end of the initial period. Mr. Cacioppo’s current annual base salary is $750,000 (which will automatically be increased by $100,000 on each anniversary of the effective date) and he is eligible to receive an annual bonus with a target amount of 100% of his annual base salary. The actual amount of any bonus earned by Mr. Cacioppo will be determined by the board of directors, but in no event will such bonus be less than 100% of Mr. Cacioppo’s base salary. Mr. Cacioppo is also eligible to participate in the employee benefit plans available to our employees, subject to the terms of such plans, including our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan. Beginning on or before July 30, 2022, and each January 1 thereafter through January 1, 2026, Mr. Cacioppo will be eligible to receive an annual equity compensation award (an LTI Award) in the form of a stock option to purchase 3,000,000 shares. The Cacioppo Employment Agreement provides that the first two LTI Awards will be vested as to one-third of the option shares on the grant date, and the remaining option shares will vest in two equal installments on January 1 of each year following the option grant date, subject to Mr. Cacioppo’s continued service through the applicable vesting date. The second two LTI Awards will be vested as to 50% of the option shares on the grant date, and the remaining option shares will vest on the first anniversary of the option grant date, subject to Mr. Cacioppo’s continued service through such date. The fifth LTI Award will be fully vested on the January 1, 2026 option grant date. Each LTI Award will remain exercisable following Mr. Cacioppo’s termination date until the earlier of (i) the expiration of the option term and (ii) the fifth anniversary of Mr. Cacioppo’s termination date.
The Cacioppo Employment Agreement provides that in the event of a termination of Mr. Cacioppo’s employment by the Company without “cause” (as defined in the Cacioppo Employment Agreement), by our election not to renew the initial term of his employment agreement, or by Mr. Cacioppo for “good reason” (as defined in the Cacioppo Employment Agreement), then subject to Mr. Cacioppo’s execution and non-revocation of a general release of claims, Mr. Cacioppo will be eligible to receive: (i) a one-time lump sum payment in an amount equal to $5,000,000, (ii) grant of the next LTI Award that would otherwise have been granted had Mr. Cacioppo remained employed by the Company through the next scheduled LTI Award date (or economically equivalent compensation in an alternative form if the grant of such awards would violate applicable law, or in the event there is an insufficient number of shares available under the company’s equity plan to make the LTI Award), and (iii) full vesting of all of Mr. Cacioppo’s outstanding equity-based awards.
Upon a termination of Mr. Cacioppo’s employment due to death, subject to his estate’s execution of a general release of claims in favor of the Company, his estate will be entitled to (i) a lump sum payment of a pro rata portion of his annual bonus in respect of the fiscal year in which such termination occurs, (ii) a lump sum cash payment in an amount equal to eighteen times the monthly COBRA premiums that Mr. Cacioppo would be required to pay to continue group health coverage at the level in effect on the date of his termination, and (iii) full vesting on the date of death of all outstanding equity-based award, subject to compliance with applicable law (clause (i) and (ii), the Separation Payments). Upon a termination of Mr. Cacioppo’s employment due to disability, Mr. Cacioppo will be eligible to receive the Separation Payments subject to his execution of a general release of claims in favor of the Company.
In the event of a change in control (as defined in the Cacioppo Employment Agreement), Mr. Cacioppo will be eligible to receive (i) a one-time lump sum payment in an amount equal to $5,000,000, (ii) grant of) the next LTI Award that would otherwise have been granted had Mr. Cacioppo remained employed by the Company through the next scheduled LTI Award date, and (iii) full vesting of all of Mr. Cacioppo’s outstanding equity-based awards. If any payment or benefit Mr. Cacioppo receives in connection with a change in control would constitute a “parachute payment” within the meaning of Section 280G of the Code subject to the excise tax under Section 4999, Mr. Cacioppo will receive a full tax gross-up payment.
The Cacioppo Employment Agreement contains various restrictive covenants, including a noncompetition provision during the term of his employment and for 18 months thereafter and a non-solicitation provision during the term of his employment and for 2 years thereafter.
Barack Employment Agreement
We entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Barack effective May 1, 2019, which was modified by a letter agreement dated June 9, 2020. The employment agreement as modified provides for, among other things, an initial base salary of $250,000, which may increase from time to time and has increased annually, most recently in 2021 to $400,000, and a discretionary performance-based bonus that may be paid by us in cash or equity. Mr. Barack is also eligible, subject to approval by our board of directors or the Compensation Committee, for equity grants under the Plan. The employment agreement includes a standard six (6)-month noncompetition, two (2)-year non-solicitation and nondisclosure covenants. In the event Mr. Barack’s employment is terminated without cause (whether or not in connection with a change in control), he is entitled to receive a lump sum cash severance payment equivalent to six (6) months of his base salary, subject to his execution of a general releases of claims. Upon a change of control, he is automatically terminated and is entitled to a cash severance equivalent to six (6) months of his base salary and vesting acceleration of any outstanding equity grants.
Garcia-Berg Employment Agreement
We entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Garcia-Berg effective May 24, 2021. The employment agreement provides for, among other things, an initial base salary of $330,000, which may increase from time to time, and a discretionary performance-based bonus targeted at 50% of his base salary that may be paid by us in cash or equity. Mr. Garcia-Berg is also eligible, subject to approval by our board of directors or the Compensation Committee, for equity grants under the Plan. The employment agreement includes a standard six (6)-month noncompetition, two (2)-year non-solicitation and nondisclosure covenants. In the event Mr. Garcia-Berg’s employment is terminated by the Company without cause either prior to a change in control or after the one year period following a change in control, then subject to his execution of a general release of claims in favor of the Company he is entitled to a lump sum cash payment based on the following schedule: (i) if less than 12 months of employment, 24 months of his base salary, (ii) if 12-17 months of employment, 18 months of his base salary, (iii) if 18-23 months of employment, 12 months of his base salary, or (iv) if greater than 24 months of employment, 6 months of his base salary. In addition, if Mr. Garcia-Berg’s employment is terminated by the Company without cause either upon a change of control or within the one year period following a change in control, then subject to his execution of a general release of claims in favor of the Company, he is entitled to vesting acceleration of his initial grant of stock options, and a lump sum cash payment equal to of 24 months of his base salary if such action occurs within the first 24 months of his employment or 12 months of base salary if such termination occurs thereafter.
Kremer Employment Agreement
We entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Kremer, effective October 5, 2021. Mr. Kremer previously served as our Chief Financial Officer from October 18, 2021 through July 12, 2022. The employment agreement provides for, among other things, an initial base salary of $400,000, which may increase from time to time, and a discretionary performance-based bonus targeted at 50% of his base salary that may be paid by us in cash or equity. However, the bonus he is eligible in his first year only has a feature where he is guaranteed 50% of such bonus and the remaining 50% is based on several financial-related filings and requirements being timely met. Mr. Kremer is also eligible, subject to approval by our board of directors or the Compensation Committee, for equity grants under the Plan. The employment agreement includes a standard six (6)-month noncompetition, two (2)-year non-solicitation and nondisclosure covenants. Prior to a change in control, in the event Mr. Kremer’s employment is terminated without cause or Mr. Cacioppo leaves in the first 12 months of Mr. Kremer’s employment and Mr. Kremer leaves for good reason, then he is entitled to a cash severance of 12 months of base salary to be paid over a 12-month period. Upon or following a change in control, in the event Mr. Kremer’s employment is terminated without cause or he leaves his employment for good reason, he is entitled to a cash severance of 12 months of base salary to be paid over a 12-month period and vesting acceleration of his initial grant of options under the Plan.
On July 12, 2022, Mr. Kremer resigned without good reason, and all unvested equity awards granted to him pursuant to his employment agreement were forfeited, and no severance payments are due.
The executive compensation program during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 consisted of three (3) key elements: (i) base salaries; (ii) cash bonuses; and (iii) equity-based compensation.
Base salaries are intended to provide an appropriate level of fixed compensation that will assist in employee retention and recruitment. Base salaries are determined on an individual basis, taking into consideration the past, current and potential contribution to our success, the position and responsibilities of the NEOs and competitive industry pay practices for other high growth, similarly sized companies in the industry.
Bonuses are awarded based on qualitative and quantitative performance standards and reward performance of each NEO individually. The determination of an NEO’s performance may vary from year to year depending on economic conditions and conditions in the industry in which we operate and may be based on measures such as acquisition activity, equity raises, revenue growth, EBITDA growth, and talent recruitment and retention, metrics the compensation committee and management believe to provide proper incentives for achieving long-term shareholder value for us at this time. Except as set forth above under the heading “Cacioppo Employment Agreement”, the compensation committee and the board of directors, when required, retain full discretion over performance evaluation and the amount of any bonuses to be paid to NEOs.
The long-term component of compensation for executive officers, including the NEOs, is currently based on a combination of restricted stock and/or stock options issued under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan. This component of compensation is intended to reinforce management’s long-term commitment to our performance. The board of directors believes that incentive compensation in the form of stock option grants and/or restricted stock awards which vest over time, typically three to five years, is beneficial and necessary to attract and retain both senior executives and managerial talent at other levels. Furthermore, the board of directors believes stock option grants are an effective long-term incentive vehicle because they are directly tied to share price over a longer period, up to 10 years, and motivate executives to deliver sustained long-term performance and increase shareholder value, and have a time horizon that aligns with long-term corporate goals. And restricted stock includes a tax component at issuance or vesting, whichever the grantee decides, which incentivizes the restricted stock grantee to deliver mid-term performance and increase shareholder value that aligns with mid-term corporate goals.
Restrictions on Hedging
Our Insider Trading and Reporting Policy prohibits our officers (including the NEOs), directors and employees from buying or selling financial instruments that are designed to hedge or offset a decrease in market value of our equity securities granted as compensation or held, directly or indirectly, by such individuals.
Equity Incentive Plan Summary
On or about April 29, 2019, the shareholders of our predecessor first adopted the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, which amendments were most recently approved by our shareholders at our annual general meeting held on June 29, 2022.
The Plan permits the grant of: (i) nonqualified stock options (NQSOs) and incentive stock options (ISOs and collectively with NQSOs, Options); (ii) restricted stock awards (RSAs); (iii) restricted stock units (RSUs); (iv) stock appreciation rights (SARs); and (v) performance compensation awards (collectively with Options, RSAs, RSUs, and SARs, Awards).
As of December 31, 2021, the following Awards were outstanding under the Plan: (i) a total of 20,429,120 Options, representing approximately 11% of the then Outstanding Share Number; and (ii) a total of 2,859,151 unvested RSAs, representing less than 2% of the then Outstanding Share Number. As of December 31, 2021, an aggregate of 7,904,819 Subordinate Voting Shares remained available for issuance under the Plan, representing approximately 4% of the then Outstanding Share Number. There is an additional 1,314,147 Subordinate Voting Shares available for certain new hires.
The number of shares that are available for issuance under the Plan cannot exceed 15% of the number of outstanding Subordinate Voting Shares, including the number of Subordinate Voting Shares underlying the Multiple Voting Shares and Super Voting Shares on an as-converted basis (the Fully Converted Number of Shares), plus an additional 2% of the Fully Converted Number of Shares that may be issued as inducement to employees and officers not previously employed by the Company and who were not previously an insider of the Company. Any Subordinate Voting Shares subject to an Award under the Plan that are forfeited, cancelled, expire unexercised, are settled in cash, or are used or withheld to satisfy tax withholding obligations of a Participant shall again be available for Awards under the Plan. The maximum number of Subordinate Voting Shares that may be issued pursuant to the exercise of Incentive Stock Options will be equal to the share reserve as of May 31, 2022.
In the event of a capitalization adjustment (as defined in the Plan), the board of directors will appropriately and proportionately adjust (i) the class(es) and maximum number of securities that may be issued under the Plan, (ii) the class(es) and maximum number of securities that may be issued pursuant to the exercise of incentive stock options, and (iii) the class(es) and number of securities and price per share subject to outstanding Awards. The board of directors will make such adjustments, and its determination will be final, binding and conclusive.
The purpose of the Plan is to: (i) promote and retain employees, directors and consultants capable of assuring our future success; (ii) motivate management to achieve long-range goals; and (iii) to provide compensation and opportunities for ownership and alignment of interests with shareholders.
The Plan permits the grant of (i) Options; (ii) RSAs; (iii) RSUs; (iv) SARs; and (v) other awards, as more fully described below. Pursuant to the Plan, the board of directors administers the Plan, but may delegate some or all of the administration of the Plan to a committee or committees thereof. The Plan is currently administered by the board of directors, and the board of directors has delegated to the Compensation Committee the ability to grant Awards with board of directors review for Directors and Officers.
Any of our employees, officers, directors, and consultants are eligible to participate (each a Participant) in the Plan if selected by the board of directors or the Compensation Committee. The basis of participation of an eligible recipient of an Award under the Plan, and the type and amount of any Award that an individual will be entitled to receive under the Plan, will be determined by board of directors and/or Compensation Committee.